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An Introduction to Stress and Meter

Fixed Poem Presentation

Objectives: Students will construct a power point presentation to demonstrate their understanding of a particular fixed form of poetry.

Do now: Quick review and prep for the presentation

  1. Elegy
  2. Ballad
  3. free verse
  4. Ode
  5. Rondeau
  6. Sonnet ( Petrachan, Shakespearean, Spencerian and Miltonic)
  7. Terza Rima
  8. Villanelle

Mini Lesson 

Meter Review

  1. Iambic (the noun is iamb or iambus): a lightly stressed syllable followed by a heavily stressed syllable u /
  2.  Trochaic (the noun is trochee): a stressed followed by a light syllable / u
  3.  Anapestic (the noun is anapest): two light syllables followed by a stressed syllable u u /
  4. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl): a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables syllables: / uu
  • If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter.
  • If a line has five feet, it is pentameter.
  • If it has six feet, it is hexameter, and so on.

Presentation Rubric

Presentation Rubric
1 2 3 4 Total
Organization Audience cannot understand presentation because there is no sequence of information. Audience has difficulty following presentation because student jumps around. Student presents information in logical sequence which audience can follow. Student presents information in logical, interesting sequence which audience can follow.
Subject Knowledge Student does not have grasp of information; student cannot answer questions about subject. Student is uncomfortable with information and is able to answer only rudimentary questions. Student is at ease with expected answers to all questions, but fails to elaborate. Student demonstrates full knowledge (more than required) by answering all class questions with explanations and elaboration.
Graphics Student uses superfluous graphics or no graphics Student occasionally uses graphics that rarely support text and presentation. Student’s graphics relate to text and presentation. Student’s graphics explain and reinforce screen text and presentation.
Mechanics Student’s presentation has four or more spelling errors and/or grammatical errors. Presentation has three misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Presentation has no more than two misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors.
Eye Contact Student reads all of report with no eye contact. Student occasionally uses eye contact, but still reads most of report. Student maintains eye contact most of the time but frequently returns to notes. Student maintains eye contact with audience, seldom returning to notes.
Elocution Student mumbles, incorrectly pronounces terms, and speaks too quietly for students in the back of class to hear. Student’s voice is low. Student incorrectly pronounces terms. Audience members have difficulty hearing presentation. Student’s voice is clear. Student pronounces most words correctly. Most audience members can hear presentation. Student uses a clear voice and correct, precise pronunciation of terms so that all audience members can hear presentation.
Total Points:

Independent Practice

  • Pair presentation and peer critique by using the presentation rubric
  • Take notes while active listening ( there will be a 5-question pop quiz prepared by each pair to test your peer’s knowledge of each fixed form of poem.

Exist Slip: Hand in the critique of your partner’s presentation by completing the rubric.

Homework: Continue working on the AP Packet you received before the spring term started.

_________________________________________

Objectives: Students will be able to apply their understanding of poetry meter and stress to reading poetry.

Resources:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Do Now: 

a. Go over the open-ended essay about the ending of a literary work.

b. Discuss briefly about the sample 9 and 8 essays- what are the signs of strengths?

  • Consider the sound of the underlined word in each passage. Speak the underlined word aloud:  Darth Vader decided to crush the rebel soldier.
  •  Luke Skywalker will rebel against his father’s wishes.

Hear the difference between the way rebel sounds in the first and second sentences? It is spelled the same. So what made the difference in sound?

Teaching Point

  1. To indicate the changes in meter, scholars put a diagonal line ( ´ ) or a macron ( – ) over stressed syllables. A small curving loop ( ˘ ) or a small x ( x ) goes over the unstressed syllables.
  2. Rhyme is only part of poetry. The main component of poetry is its meter (the regular pattern of strong and weak stress). When a poem has a recognizable but varying pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, the poetry is written in verse.
  3. the basic pattern of each unit is called a foot

Guided Practice

  1. Exercise: Identifying Patterns of Stress Identify the Stress in the Following Words and Phrases: (1) Bill Clinton
  2. (2) Monica Lewinsky
  3. (3) How now brown cow?
  4. (4) Arnold Schwarzenegger
  5. (5) Oops! I did it again! I played with your heart.
  6. (6) Wild thing! You make my heart sing! You make everything . . . groovy.
  7. (7) I went to a party at the county jail. . . . (
  8. 8) Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary
  9. (9) I shall wear white flannel trousers and walk along the beach I have heard the mermaids singing each to each, I do not think they shall sing to me.
  10. 10) Were there but world enough, and time, this coyness lady, were no crime . . .
  11. (11) Supercallifragilisticexpealadocious!
  12. (12) Perpendicular
  13. (13) Magda is so very mean. She’s an Australopithicene.

Teaching Points PART ii( see page 3)

  1. Iambic (the noun is iamb or iambus): a lightly stressed syllable followed by a heavily stressed syllable u /
  2.  Trochaic (the noun is trochee): a stressed followed by a light syllable / u
  3.  Anapestic (the noun is anapest): two light syllables followed by a stressed syllable u u /
  4. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl): a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables syllables: / uu

Iambs and anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called “rising meter“; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at the beginning, are called “falling meter.”

Additionally, if a line ends in a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is said to have a masculine ending.

If an extra lightly stressed syllable is added to a line, it is said to be feminine.

To hear the difference, read the following examples out loud and listen to the final stress:

  • Masculine Ending: u / ‘Twas the night before Christmas, and all through the house, u / Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse.
  • Feminine Ending: u / u ‘Twas the night before Christmas, and all through the housing, u / u Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing.

We name metric lines according to the number of “feet” in them.

  • If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter.
  • If a line has five feet, it is pentameter.
  • If it has six feet, it is hexameter, and so on.
  • Different languages tend to require different meter. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and Greek verse hexameter. When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the line as “iambic pentameter” (having five feet, with each foot tending to be a light syllable followed by heavy syllable). Or it might be “trochaic hexameter” (having six feet, with each foot tending to be a heavy syllable followed by a light syllable)

Independent Practice

BLANK VERSE: IAMBIC PENTAMETER WITH SUBSTITIONS

Now, fair Hippolyta, our nuptial hour

Draws on apace. Four happy days bring in

Another moon; but, O, methinks, how slow

This old moon wanes! She lingers my desires,

Like to a stepdame, or a dowager. . . .

Homework: In pairs, prepare a presentation of a fixed form of poetry. For your presentation, explain what the form looks like ( meter and foot). Select one poem from the HANDOUT to analyze. Practice reading the poem based on the stressed and unstressed syllables. Practice at least 2 stanzas.

  1. Elegy
  2. Ballad
  3. free verse
  4. Ode
  5. Rondeau
  6. Sonnet ( Petrachan, Shakespearean, Spencerian and Miltonic)
  7. Terza Rima
  8. Villanelle

Open-Ended Question on Ending

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate sample essays of an open-ended topic and apply strategies to revising their own essay.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2.A
Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2.B
Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
Do Now: Reveal 2015 AP Lit exam essay question

In literary works, cruelty often functions as a crucial motivation or a major social or political factor. Select a novel, play, or epic poem in which acts of cruelty are important to the theme. Then write a well-developed essay analyzing how cruelty functions in the work as a whole and what the cruelty reveals about the perpetrator and/or victim. You may select a work from the list below or another work of equal literary merit. Do not merely summarize the plot.

Teaching Points

  1. Characteristics of a thesis statement and how to formulate one that is complex
  2. How to develop two claims that are built on each other and contribute to the thesis?
  3. How to translate  the abstract term into a more understandable concrete idea?
  4. How to delineate details/examples form a literary work to illustrate your claims?

Guided Practice

Read the sample 9/8 essays and answer the questions above.

Reflect: What strategies have you learned from evaluating the sample essay about writing a strong open-ended essay?

Independent Practice

Revise your group essay on Ending. Due Friday.

Homework: Finish the essay and work on the test prep packet.