Unit 3: Othello

Click here to access the unit link and please go straight to page 129

Read a modern version of Othello

Pacing Calendar

  • 1/3/2017: Analyze Act 3 passage 2
  • 1/4: Analyze Open ended question about characters being purely good or evil /Dali’s painting “The Persistence of Memory”
  • 1/5: Analyze Sonnet 60 and Act III PASSAGE ONE LINES 45-103
  • 1/6 Fri: Act III Passage 2 lines 389-546 HW: Ted Talk ” An Ode to Envy“( pages 219-231)
  • 1/9 Mon: Discuss Act III Passages 1 & 2 and open ended essay question on ” the strongest human drive to be a desire for power) ( page 232). HW: Read ” Excerpted from “Jealousy Led Bonds to Steroids, Authors Say,” by Jack Curry New York Times March 8, 2006
  • 1/10 Tue: Analyze Sonnet 90 (page 242) HW Complete exercises from pages 242-246.
  • 1/11 Wed.: Analyze Act IV Scene 1 lines 244-321 ( page 248)
  • 1/12 Thur: Analyze Act IV Scene 2 lines 37-110 ( pages 253)
  • 1/13 Fri: Exploring themes of madness ( page 259) HW: Respond to Open Ended Question on madness ( page 265)
  • 1/17 Tue: Discuss the essay on madness and contemporary source ( page 269)
  • 1/18 Wed: Act V ( Richard II passage page 282)
  • 1/19 Thur: Comparing Richard to Othello ( page 288)
  • 1/20 Fri: Considering the ending ( page 293)
  • 1/23 Mon. Reviewing Traits of Shakespearean Tragedy ( page 296); AP Essay on a self-selected open ended essay question due. HW over he Regents break: Challenge the claim on tragedy ( page 298) and Presenting a Contemporary source( page 300)

Resources:

Unit Title: Othello by William Shakespeare 

time Frame: 5.5 weeks

Objective: In this unit, students will engage in a close study of what constitutes a Shakespearean tragedy. To do this, students will study a central text, Othello, and then apply their understanding of the elements to various contemporary sources, including a modern adaptation of the play, a current event of jealousy in professional sports, and the podcast Serial. Students will become particularly aware of the complexities of each element by studying it through a variety of lenses, including historical texts and TED Talks.

Expectations: As a whole, students will increase their ability to closely read and interpret a Shakespearean text while also developing an understanding of human nature. They will also become more experienced with analyzing a visual text since the unit includes several artistic pieces and visual essays. Students will also develop a deeper understanding of poetry and examine the way in which poetry connects to Othello.

In each lesson students will construct responses that include argumentative and analytical writing. Finally, they will engage in several multiple choice exercises that appear on released AP English Literature exams.

Anchor Text

  •  Othello, William Shakespeare
  •   Othello, No Fear Shakespeare
  •  Othello, Audible Audio Recording o Starring Chiwetel Ejiofor, Ewan McGregor, and Kelly Reilly.
  •  Othello, 1995 Film Adaptation o Laurence Fishburne, Kenneth Branagh

Supplemental Texts (These texts might be excerpted for classroom use and are subject to change).

  •  The Prince, Nicolo Machiavelli
  •  “Sonnet 130,” William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 60,” William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 90,” William Shakespeare
  •  Richard II, William Shakespeare Images
  •  Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali

Video, Audio

  • “Sympathy for the Devil,” Rolling Stones
  •  O, Tim Blake Nelson
  •  “An Ode to Envy,” Parul Sehgal, Ted Talk
  •  “How to Spot a Liar,” Pamela Meyer, Ted Talk
  •  House of Cards, Season One Trailer
  •  Serial, Season One, NPR Unit Exercises and Assignments Multiple Choice
  •  Richard II, William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 90,” William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 60,” William Shakespeare Close Reading/Literary/Poetry Analysis
  •  Various excerpts from Othello
  • o I.i.1-81, I.ii.1-38
  • o II.i. 197-233 o II.i. 234-334
  • o III.iii.45-102 o III.iii.389-546
  • o IV.i.244-321 o IV.ii.37-110
  • o V.ii.310-332 o V.ii.424-435
  •  The Prince, Nicolo Machiavelli
  •  “Sonnet 130,” William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 60,” William Shakespeare
  •  “Sonnet 90,” William Shakespeare
  •  Richard II, William Shakespeare Writing and Research
  •  1972 AP Literature Question Three
  •  2002 AP Literature Question Three
  •  2005 (Form B) AP Literature Question Three
  •  2001 AP Literature Question Three
  •  1973 AP Literature Question Three

Unit Calendar

Week 1

  1. Defining a Shakespearean Tragedy Hmwk: Read Act One
  2.  Finish Reading Act One in class Hmwk: Read Act Two
  3.  Complete Activity One-Six of Act One Hmwk: Read Act Two
  4.  Complete Activity Seven and Eight of Act One Hmwk: Read Act Two
  5.  Complete Activity Nine-Thirteen of Act One Hmwk: Read Act Two

Week 2

  1.  Review content of Act Two Hmwk: Read Act Three
  2.  Complete Activity One-Four of Act Two Hmwk: Read Act Three
  3.  Complete Activity Five-Ten of Act Two Hmwk: Read Act Three
  4.  Complete Activity Eleven-Twelve of Act Two Hmwk: Read Act Three
  5.  Complete Activities Thirteen and Fourteen of Act Two Hmwk: Read Act Three

Unit Overview

Act One: Understanding Character Motivation through Close Reading

For this Act, the students will

  1. engage in a variety of close reading exercises, each meant to help them decipher text and then analyze it appropriately.
  2. be given the opportunity to determine their own feelings about the characters presented in the opening of the play and compare them to figures in two contemporary sources, a song and a movie.
  3. For each passage in this unit, students are given excerpted explanatory notes. While the students are encouraged to read each passage in three steps(described throughout the unit).
  4. act out the various scenes incorporating inflection as a means to better understand the dialogue. For this particular lesson, consider modern day comparisons to Iago as a way to apply the traits realized through the activities in this lesson.
  5. identify a song, other than “Sympathy for the Devil,” that exemplifies Iago.

Act Two: The Nature of Leadership

The purpose of this series of lessons is to get students to think more critically about what constitutes an effective leader. To do this, the students will

  • determine their own definition and contrast that with Niccolo Machiavelli’s perspective.
  • Then, students will do a close study of how Othello and Iago are presented in Act Two and consider the extent to which either fulfills the traits of a powerful leader.
  • consider the traits of a leader and then compare and contrast this view with Niccolo Machiavelli. Instead of beginning with a close study of Othello, it is important for students to identify the various interpretations of a leader in order to evaluate these traits in both Iago and Othello.
  • explore the extent to which either defines good leadership.
  • identify a variety of leaders that embody their and Machiavelli’s definition of a leader.
  • “Sonnet 130” and Othello II.i.197-233 are rich with imagery. In addition to completing the close reading activities included in these activities,  draw out striking images from each and compare and contrast these.

Act Three: Understanding Theme through a Reading of a Variety of Texts

  • In this series of activities, students will explore the way in which jealousy alters the individual’s ability to accurately perceive reality. This examination will begin with a close study of a Shakespearean sonnet and the way in which time destroys the individual.
  • This then transitions into a visual analysis of the way in which time is distorted by perception.
  • Students will then begin exploring how these ideas relate to Othello and how his faith and leadership is being destroyed by his jealousy.
  • Act Three activities will conclude with an analysis of envy through a contemporary TED Talk and a news article about Barry Bonds.
  • “Sonnet 160” is a challenging poem . Students may work independently first and then share answers with a partner.
  • When students are analyzing Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, students will nnotate the image. A conceptually difficult image, teachers should allow students plenty of time to dissect and discuss the work. Teachers should also remind students that the purpose of art is to encourage dialogue, not resolution. This might ease the concerns students might have if unable to have a clear interpretation or understanding of the work.

Act Four: Analyzing the Gradual Decline of Othello’s Sanity

This series of activities begins with students

  • studying a Shakespearean sonnet about a vulnerable speaker who has recently been deserted by a friend and is questioning loyalty. This prepares the students to apply the theme of desertion and vulnerability in Othello through various passages and activities.
  • The students will explore how Othello’s character has drastically evolved because of his jealousy and is beginning to reveal signs of insanity. Madness will then be investigated in depth through a class discussion, written response, and connection to a contemporary podcast, Serial.
  • By Act Four, Othello’s decaying rationality is becoming incredibly clear. Students should begin questioning his ability to make rational decisions and exploring the extent to which he is truly “mad.” “Sonnet 90” captures this feeling of abandonment and  students will consider the effect this could have on a person. This naturally sets them up for understanding Othello’s cold reaction to Desdemona.
  • While engaging in the close reading activities, consider the evolution of Othello and compare and contrast his dialogue to previous scenes.
  • When it comes to paraphrasing Othello and Desdemona’s lines, complete this activity in groups and then have the class engage in a carousel around the room to recognize the motives of each character more fully.
  • Finally, the Serial podcast might be something with which students are unfamiliar. For this particular activity, students do not need to actually listen to the episode since the transcript has been provided.

Act Five: Evaluating the Features of a Shakespearean Tragedy

The final series of lessons for this unit brings the study of a Shakespearean tragedy to a close by asking students to

  • identify the type of isolation and confusion Othello feels at the end of the play, causing him to kill Desdemona and himself.
  • Students will study the resolution and evaluate how this play embodies the qualities of a Shakespearean tragedy before conducting further research on one of the contemporary sources introduced throughout the unit.
  • The unit of study will conclude with students presenting about one of the contemporary sources and their belief of whether or not it should be classified as a modern-day Shakespearean tragedy.
  • Since this is the culminating lesson, students should frequently consult the Shakespearean tragedy charts completed in previous Acts. This will help them add more information or develop a more detailed-description of how the element is seen in the Act.
  •  When discussing the Richard II passage,  students will consider the extent to which Shakespeare’s writing style is present in both works. This will help them better reflect upon Shakespeare as a writer and not just the content of the works.
  • The exchange between Desdemona and Othello is missing from this lesson since it doesn’t directly support the elements of a Shakespearean tragedy the way the other passages do. However, it is a pivotal scene to the storyline and we may incorporate it as a way to bring resolution to the plot.
  • For the final presentation, students will do research and find a source to further investigate in specific groups.
  • Depending on the ability of the class, the teacher might require several benchmarks be completed as a way to monitor progress. This might include asking students to submit the completed chart for a grade or submit a graphic organizer or outline for the presentation.

CCSS

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.2
Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.7
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.B
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2.D
Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.D
Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.2
Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

____________________________________________

Lessons on Act I

Lesson 1

Introducing a Play by Understanding a Trope

Objectives:  Students will be able to define traits of Shakespearean tragedy by thinking of common fairy tales and the extent to which those traits are present in the fairy tale they selected.

Do now:  Describing a Fairy Tale. Take one of the classic fairy tales and summarize it. In your summary, include all significant characters (both major and minor), locations, the central conflict, any supernatural elements, and how the story ends. Describe the characters and their noteworthy features and traits.The more you understand the prescribed structure and qualities, the more successful you will be.

Mini Lesson What is a Shakespearean Tragedy?

Part A:

Below is a description of what qualifies as a Shakespearean tragedy. Read the description for each and then paraphrase the description in your own words to help solidify your understanding. Many definitions exist for the word “tragedy.” In contemporary society it is often referred to as something heartbreaking, appallingly awful, or something that is surprisingly sad. However, the roots of the word highlight a more detailed, nuanced definition. Aristotle, the grandfather of philosophy, described a tragedy as “an imitation of an action that is serious, complete in itself, and of a certain magnitude.”

However, in order to qualify as a Shakespearean tragedy, a story must meet very specific criterion. Below are several defining features of a Shakespearean tragedy.

Understanding these elements are paramount to being able to properly identify a text as a Shakespearean tragedy, which is the focus of the unit.

Part B:  Common Themes in Shakespearean Tragedies

There are also common themes that run throughout Shakespearean tragedies. Below is a brief description of each theme. Paraphrase the description to ensure full comprehension.

Part C: Evaluating Elements of a Tragedy in a Fairy Tale

While it isn’t imperative that every single element of a Shakespearean tragedy apply to a text, the majority of the criterion needs to be present. Evaluate the extent to which the fairy tale you selected for Activity One fits the criterion of a Shakespearean tragedy by placing a check next to each element if it pertains to your fairytale.

Independent Practice: 

As a group, complete each worksheet.

Reflect: Define a Shakespearean tragedy.

Homework: Complete the character map.

_______________________________________

Day 2

Objectives: Students will be able to decipher Act I of Othello and analyze it appropriately by engaging in a variety of close reading exercises,. Students will also be able to determine their own feelings about the characters presented in the opening of the play  and compare them to figures in two contemporary sources, a song and a movie.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.7
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

Materials:

  1. Othello textbook
  2. Othello Unit packet

Agenda

Do Now: share in a small group the character map.

Mini Lesson: close reading of ACT I SCENE 1 LINES 1-81. ( PAGE 139 in the packet).

Understand the Language of the Passage
Below is the opening of the play. In this excerpt we learn that Iago has been passed up for a promotion, which has been given to Michael Cassio by Othello, described as the Moor. Iago is angered by this and feels as though he was more worthy of the position. Read the excerpt employing the following steps.

  1. Step One: Read the passage in the left-hand column trying to grasp basic comprehension of the dialogue. Circle any words that you feel you absolutely must know in order to understand the passage.
  2. Step Two: Read the passage a second time, this time reading slowly and using the vocabulary presented in the right-hand column to explain the dialogue more fully.
  3. Step Three: Read the passage a third time, seeking to understand the feelings and attitudes of the characters. Underline places that convey emotion, inflection or expresses the attitude of each speaker.

Independent Practice: Close Reading Questions about Iago
After developing a basic understanding of the passage, reread the specified lines and answer the provided close reading questions to help you further understand the plot presented. Use the vocabulary presented in the right-hand column as needed; however, use your own words, not Shakespeare’s, to express your understanding.

  • 1. Study lines 5-15.
    a. Who is the “him” referenced in line 7?
    b. In lines 13-15 Iago says Othello “as loving his own pride and purposes,/Evades them with a bombast circumstance/Horribly stuffed with epithets of war.” What does this suggest about Othello
  • 2. Reread Iago’s lines from 20-28.
    a. What is one reason Iago gives to justify why Cassio is unfit to be lieutenant?
    b. Why is being an arithmetician (line 20) a way to belittle or put down Cassio’s ability to lead?
  • 3.  Review Iago’s statement at line 34-35: He, in good time, must his lieutenant be/And I, <God> bless the mark, his Moorship’s ancient.
    a. Who is the “he”?
    b. What is a Moor? Use a dictionary if needed.
    c. The provided vocabulary says this is a “sarcastic racial slur.” What does this suggest about Iago’s attitudes toward Othello?
    d. According to the provided vocabulary, what is an “ancient”?
    e. Ultimately, what is Iago saying he will do in these lines?
  • 4. Read the exchange between Roderigo and Othello that takes place in lines 36-43.

a. What is Roderigo’s attitude toward serving Othello?
b. What does Iago say “Tis the curse of service” (line 37)?
c. What does Iago say is the difference between serving and loving Othello?

5. Iago clarifies his plan in lines 44-63. Reread these lines and examine how Iago describes the two different types of people who follow a leader.
a. How does he describe “knee-crooking knave”?
b. How does he describe the men “trimmed in forms and visages of duty”?
c. Which of these does he say he will be?

6. The excerpt concludes at lines 64-71. Review these lines.
a. What is meant by “In following him, I follow but myself” (line 64)?
b. What does Iago reveal about whether or not he will reveal his true self?

7. Now, consider the passage as a whole when answering the following questions.
a. Which of the following best describes Iago’s view of Othello in this passage? He views Othello as…
Incompetent/ Egotistical /Devious/Manipulative/ Ignorant/ Naïve
b. Why did you choose this word?

8. How would you summarize Iago’s plan? Choose any three of the following words when composing your summary.
Cassio      lieutenant           pose       manipulate        leader       serve
trick        purpose           Roderigo

Summary:

9. Consider Iago’s plan as a whole.
a. In your opinion, what is the root cause of Iago’s plan: jealousy, revenge, moral righteousness, desire for power, or anger?
b. What evidence do you have for this cause?

Homework: Continue reading Act I and complete the responses to the questions.

For group 1 who is responsible for act I, select the most important excerpts that portray Othello, Iago, Cassio, Duke. Identify the issues emerging from Act I. Create a complete scene where main characters interact and issues are being brought up or start developing.

___________________________

Day 3

Objectives: Students will be able to examine Iago’s character based on what Iago is saying and what it suggests about him by completing a chart in a small group.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

Agenda

Do now: Each group presents the interpretations assigned.

Mini Lesson:

 Paraphrasing is an incredibly useful strategy when reading challenging text. It forces the reader to break the line into smaller parts and rephrase them using their own words, thus making it easier to understand. Often, a paraphrasing is replacing each of Shakespeare’s words. For example, the opening line of this passage is:
<Tush,> never tell me! I take it much unkindly
This could be paraphrased as Ugh. Don’t tell me! I find it mean.
You might need to examine the context of the line to paraphrase accurately and make sure it fits in with the content of the excerpt. Remember that paraphrasing Shakespeare is meant to help you better under the context of the events, the description of the setting, and the characters within the play.

  1. You will be asked to identify the character traits that are present in the passage for Iago. Then, provide specific textual evidence from the excerpt that helps to prove the character trait you have identified.
  2. You will be assigned one of the three passages (pages 146-148)from the following pages to complete on your own.
  3. Then, in activity four, you will partner with two other students who completed the paraphrasing activity for the other passages. Together, you will compare your paraphrasing and the character traits you identified to gain an overall understanding of the character of Iago( page( 149).

Independent Practice:

5. Character Summary ( page 150)
After doing a close study of a character, an efficient way to create a snapshot of the character is to apply the acronym FAST (described below). Use your answers from the close reading questions, your paraphrase, and the synthesis of Iago’s values, beliefs, and morals to summarize Iago.
F=Feelings
A=Actions
S=Says
T=Thoughts

Lesson Summary:  Reaction to Iago ( page 151)

Homework: 

Activity Seven: Compare and Contrast Iago with a Contemporary Source
Now that you have a stronger idea of who Iago is and what he stands for, consider the extent to which he is embodied by the contemporary song “Sympathy for the Devil” by The Rolling Stones. The song can be listened to here, and you can follow the lyrics, provided below. When following along with the song, circle any moments in which you see parallels to Iago. Then, in the margins, explain the similarity.

Complete the questions on pages 153-154.

_________________________________________________

Day 4 ( PAGES 155-166)

Objectives: Students will deepen their understanding of Iago’s character by sharing their FAST character summary as well comparing Iago to a contemporary source.

Agenda

Do Now:  Share in small groups-

  • Character Summary ( page 150)
    After doing a close study of a character, an efficient way to create a snapshot of the character is to apply the acronym FAST (described below). Use your answers from the close reading questions, your paraphrase, and the synthesis of Iago’s values, beliefs, and morals to summarize Iago.
    F=Feelings
    A=Actions
    S=Says
    T=Thoughts

Mini Lesson:

  1.  Reaction to Iago ( page 151)
  2. Compare and Contrast Iago with a Contemporary Source
    Now that you have a stronger idea of who Iago is and what he stands for, consider the extent to which he is embodied by the contemporary song “Sympathy for the Devil” by The Rolling Stones. The song can be listened to here, and you can follow the lyrics, provided below. When following along with the song, circle any moments in which you see parallels to Iago. Then, in the margins, explain the similarity.Complete the questions on pages 153-154.

Independent Practice:

  • In small groups, complete “Responding in Writing” on page 154.
  • Responding to Act One Scene One ( activity 8-pages 155-156

As is true with all writing, the beginning of a text reveals quite a bit about the work as a whole. The following prompt from the 1972 AP Literature exam explores this point.

Read the prompt, underlining the task itself.
1972 AP Literature Question Three

In retrospect, the reader often discovers that the first chapter of a novel or the opening scene of a drama introduces some of the major themes of the work. Write an essay about the opening scene of a drama or the first chapter of a novel in which you explain how it functions in this way. 

As was learned through the study of a Shakespearean tragedy, there are three common themes: good versus evil, appearance versus reality, and the corrupting nature of power. Think through each of these, considering how they are seen in the first scene of Othello and what Shakespeare is arguing about the themes through his characters and their actions.

Responding in Writing
Now, construct a paragraph using the following frame sentences to organize your thoughts on the issues addressed in the 1972 AP Literature Open Question free response.

Shakespeare’s play Othello, opens with Iago unveiling his plan to seek revenge on Othello.
In this scene the reader learns___________________(Provide a summary of the opening scene.) ____________________This serves to introduce the theme of _________________(Identify the theme most clearly seen in this scene.) The reader learns about this theme___________________. (Provide key plot details from I.i) In emphasizing this theme, Shakespeare is suggesting_________________________.(Discuss the larger importance of Shakespeare’s work.)

Now, based on your paragraphing work above, construct a thesis statement that responds to the task of the 1972 prompt. Remember that you must discuss how the opening scene in Othello introduces key themes.
Thesis:_________________________________________( assessment)

Homework: ACTIVITIES 9-13 ( PAGES 157-166)

Activity Nine: Uncovering Othello’s Character Traits ( page 157-158)
The following passage occurs in Act One, Scene Two. This is the first time the audience has been introduced to Othello. In this excerpt, Iago and Othello engage in a dialogue about Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, and about Othello’s love for Desdemona. Read the excerpt employing the following steps.

  1. Step One: Read the passage in the left-hand column trying to grasp basic comprehension of the dialogue. Circle any words that you feel you absolutely must know in order to understand the passage.
  2. Step Two: Read the passage a second time, this time reading slowly and using the vocabulary presented in the right-hand column to explain the dialogue more fully.
  3. Step Three: Read the passage a third time, seeking understand the feelings and attitudes of the characters. Underline places that convey emotion or inflection or express an attitude of each speaker.

ResourceTrailer of Liongate film ” O” for Activity 12

______________________

Act 2 : The Nature of Leadership
Objectives: Students will be able to think more critically about what constitutes an effective leader through determining their own definition and contrasting that with Niccolo Machiavelli’s perspective as well as doing a close study of how Othello and Iago are presented in Act Two ( consider the extent to which either fulfills the traits of a powerful leader).

Do Now:  Activity One: Brainstorming Leadership Traits
As the play has progressed, the reader has been able to see more about Othello and his role as a leader.  What do you think captures an ideal, effective leader, whether it be the leader of a school club or activity, of a community, or even of the United States? Describe this leader in 5-7 sentences, exploring what traits or qualities the leader should possess. In composing your response consider answering the following questions:
How should a leader…
 Lead?
 Present himself or herself in front of allies versus enemies?
 React to major events?
 Treat others?
 Motivate others?
 Make his or her followers feel?
 Carry himself or herself?

Pair share.

Activity 2: Teaching Points and Guided Practice

Examining a Historical Perspective of Leadership
Read the following excerpt from Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince, a collection of essays offering practical suggestions for various ways to rule or lead. This passage, written during the Italian Renaissance (roughly ninety years before Shakespeare composed Othello) is titled “Concerning Cruelty and Clemency, And Whether It Is Better To Be Loved Than Feared.” Machiavelli wrote this essay in response to the rule of the Medici family, who he hoped to impress as an attempt to reenter the political arena.

Read the excerpt and answer the questions.
Upon this a question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, is much safer to be feared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. Because this is to be asserted in general of men, that they are
5 ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, covetous, and as long as you succeed they are yours entirely; they will offer you their blood, property, life and children, as is said above, when the need is far distant; but when it approaches they turn against you. And that prince who, relying entirely on their promises, has neglected other precautions, is ruined; because
friendships that are obtained by payments, and not by greatness or nobility of mind, may
10 indeed be earned, but they are not secured, and in time of need cannot be relied upon; and men have less scruple in offending one who is beloved than one who is feared, for love is
preserved by the link of obligation which, owing to the baseness of men, is broken at every opportunity for their advantage; but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails.
15 Nevertheless a prince ought to inspire fear in such a way that, if he does not win love, he avoids hatred; because he can endure very well being feared whilst he is not hated, which will always be as long as he abstains from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women. But when it is necessary for him to proceed against the life of someone, he must do it on proper justification and for manifest cause, but above all things he must keep
20 his hands off the property of others, because men more quickly forget the death of their father than the loss of their patrimony. Besides, pretexts for taking away the property are never wanting; for he who has once begun to live by robbery will always find pretexts for seizing what belongs to others; but reasons for taking life, on the contrary, are more difficult to find and sooner lapse. But when a prince is with his army, and has under control a
25 multitude of soldiers, then it is quite necessary for him to disregard the reputation of cruelty, for without it he would never hold his army united or disposed to its duties.

Independent Practice in small groups

Developing Understanding Complete the questions below to help you better understand the text.
1. Review what Machiavelli argues about a leader who is loved. a. What traits does a leader who is loved possess?
b. According to Machiavelli, what are two reasons it is bad to be loved?
2. Reread the text to consider what Machiavelli suggests about leaders who are feared. a. What traits does a leader who is feared possess?
b. According to Machiavelli, what are two reasons why it is good to be feared?
c. How can a leader evoke fear?
3. According to Machiavelli, what should a leader avoid?
4. In what ways is Machiavelli’s description similar to your description of a leader recorded in Activity One?
5. In what ways is Machiavelli’s description different from your description of a leader recorded in Activity One?

Teaching and Guided Practice
Activity Three:
Understanding the Language of the Passage One

Until this point in the play Desdemona and Othello have been married, much to the despair of her father Brabantio who claims Othello bewitched her. The Senate asks to hear both sides and considers the marriage honest and their love for one another true. Othello is then given orders to depart to Cyprus with Desdemona following him through the watchful eye of Iago. Roderigo, devastated at Desdemona’s love for Othello, threatens to commit suicide but is persuaded by Iago to further commit to his plan of bringing down Othello.

In the following excerpt, Desdemona and Othello have been reunited in Cyprus and express their love for one another. Read the excerpt employing the following steps.
Step One: Read the passage in the left-hand column trying to grasp basic comprehension of the dialogue. Circle any words that you feel you absolutely must know in order to understand the passage.
Step Two: Read the passage a second time, this time reading slowly and using the vocabulary presented in the right-hand column to explain the dialogue more fully.
Step Three: Read the passage a third time, seeking understand the feelings and attitudes of the characters. Underline places that convey emotion or inflection or expresses an attitude of each speaker.

Excerpt: Othello Passage II.i.197-233 9(Act II Scene 1 LINES 197-233)

Independent PRACTICE:

Activity Four: Developing Comprehension of Passage One
After reading the passage, review sections of the text and answer the following questions.
1. The opening of this passage tells the reader much about Othello and Desdemona’s personality. Review the first two lines and then answer the following questions.
a. Paraphrase how Othello greets Desdemona.
b. Why is it ironic that Othello calls Desdemona a “warrior”?
c. What does Othello’s greeting suggest about him and his views of Desdemona?
2. Consider Desdemona’s return greeting.
a. How would you paraphrase Desdemona’s return greeting?
b. Why is this an ironic greeting?
c. What does Desdemona’s greeting suggest about her? Her views of Othello?
3. Examine Othello’s discussion of his love and of the tempest (or storm) from 199-209.
a. Metaphorically speaking, what was the storm that Othello just went through?
b. What has given him calm?
c. Why is Othello encouraging storms so powerful they will have winds that “have waken’d death”?
d. Why is Othello content to die?

4. Study the final lines Othello states 221-233.
a. What update does Othello give about the war?
b. How does Othello characterize those living in Cyprus?
c. What does this suggest about what he values?
5. Othello uses words in this section that highlight his character.
a. One is the word “prattle.” What does this word mean?
b. What does this word suggest about Othello’s personality?
c. Another word is “dote.” What does this word mean?
d. What does this word suggest about Othello’s personality?
6. Which ONE of the following words would you select to describe Othello’s leadership in this section:
a. Lenient, powerful, dominant, assertive, OR compassionate?
b. Why did you choose this word?

_________________________________

Day 6

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze Shakespearean language in order to study the characterization of Desdemona and Iago and the theme of the sonnet.

Do Now: How would you characterize Desdemona in this excerpt?  Why is it significant that Iago’s only speech occurs during an aside? Share share your response.

Teaching Points

Study the characterization of Desdemona and Iago in this excerpt and answer the following questions.
a. How would you characterize Desdemona in this excerpt?
b. An aside is when a character speaks directly to the audience. When this happens, the other characters aren’t able to hear the dialogue. With this in mind, why is it significant that Iago’s only speech occurs during an aside?
c. What does Iago mean when he says “you are well tuned now”?
d. In your own words, what does Iago say he will do to Othello in line 219?

 Analyze the literary devices used throughout the excerpt.
a. A hyperbole is an exaggeration so extreme that it is challenging to take seriously. Identify two moments that Othello exaggerates.
b. This excerpt is riddled with clichés, statements that are trite and meaningless because they have been overused so often. Identify two clichés said by Othello in this excerpt.
 Cliché #1:
o What does this suggest about Othello?
 Cliché #2:
o What does this suggest about Othello?
c. Identify one cliché said by Desdemona in this excerpt.
 Cliché #1:
o What does it suggest about Desdemona?

9. This excerpt is rich in imagery. Reread the excerpt looking for imagery specifically.
a. Record one image that appears in this passage.
b. What does this image convey?
10. Consider the passage as a whole.
a. Based on your knowledge of the excerpt, which of the following words best characterizes the love presented by Othello and Desdemona: Idealistic, realistic, immature, or artificial?
b. Why did you choose this word?

___________

Day 7

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze how Shakespeare uses literary devices to convey his intention.

Do Now: Quick review- what are you struggling the most at this point with poetry analysis? Pair share.

Mini Lesson

Guided Practice
Activity 5 Reading Shakespeare “Sonnet 130”
Below is one of Shakespeare’s most famous sonnet, a highly structured poem. Typically, a Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains and a couplet.

A quatrain is a stanza of four lines. In the quatrains, the speakers poses a problem or introduces a theme. Each quatrain expand upon the problem and its complexity through additional details or key ideas. This theme or problem is then resolved in the couplet, the final two lines of a poem.
Read through the entire sonnet and then complete the tasks identified in the right-hand column.

Sonnet 130

My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.

5 I have seen roses damask’d, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
10 That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:

And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.

1. Draw a line between each quatrain.
2. Draw a box around the couplet.
3. Record the rhyme scheme of the entire sonnet in the right-hand margin.
4. Underline each image present in the sonnet.

Independent Practice

Activity Six: Analyzing Shakespeare Sonnet 130
Below are a series of questions about Sonnet 130. Use your reading and annotations to help answer these questions.
Quatrain One
1. Examine the first quatrain and answer the following questions.
a. What does the phrase “black wires” suggest about the mistress’ hair?
b. Using your own words, how would you describe her lips?
c. If her eyes are nothing like the sun,” then what can you infer about her eyes?
d. If the purpose of a quatrain is to introduce a problem or theme, what challenge is being posed in this quatrain?
e. Which word most clearly captures Shakespeare’s tone in the first quatrain: critical, ambivalent, disappointed, patient, sympathetic, or exasperated?
d. Why did you choose this word?
e. Which image from the quatrain best conveys this attitude?

Quatrain Two
2. Study the second quatrain.
a. How does the speaker describe her cheeks?
b. What does the her breath smell like?
c. Which word most clearly captures Shakespeare’s tone in the second quatrain: critical, ambivalent, disappointed, patient, sympathetic, or exasperated? It may be the same tone word selected for the first quatrain.
d. Why did you choose this word?
e. Which image from the quatrain best conveys this attitude?

Quatrain Three
3. Re-read the third quatrain thinking about how it is similar or different from the preceding quatrains.
a. In your own words, how is her voice described?
b. According to this quatrain, how do goddesses typically walk?
c. How does his mistress walk?
d. What does this suggest about her?
e. Which word most clearly captures Shakespeare’s tone in the third quatrain: critical, ambivalent, disappointed, patient, sympathetic, or exasperated? It may be the same tone word selected for the first and/or second quatrain.
f. Why did you choose this word?
g. Which image from the quatrain best conveys this attitude?

Couplet
4. Finally, study the last two lines and consider the solution posed.
a. The speaker concludes by stating his love is rare. What makes it rare?
b. What does “false compare” mean?
c. Look at the rhyming pattern in the couplet. What is the rhyme scheme?
d. Why is this an appropriate rhyme scheme given the purpose of the couplet?

Assessment: Examining the Poem in its Entirety
Below are a series of questions about the poem as a whole( individually)
5. Based on your knowledge of the excerpt, which of the following words best characterizes the love presented by the speaker of the poem: idealistic, realistic, immature, artificial?
6. Why did you choose this word?
7. What is the poet suggesting about love?
8. Is the speaker effective in conveying this message?
9. Why does the speaker make so many comparisons to other types of love?
10. What is the speaker’s attitude toward those who want a mistress with eyes like the sun and lips like coral?
11. How would the receiver respond to this declaration of love?

Assessment: Show worksheets in the Othello Packet ( pages 167-181)

Homework:

  • Complete Activity 6 of Act 2 (page 181) and close read and annotate passage 2 in Act 2 ( 182-184).
  • For Tuesday night, complete Activity 9 : Developing Comprehension of Passage 2).( page 185) and ACTIVITY 10: character attitude ( PAGE 186).
  • Write a first draft of sonnet analysis: How does Shakespeare use poetic devices to reveal the speaker’s  attitude toward the ” mistress”? Due on Friday.

_________________________________________

Day 8

Objectives: Students will be able to explore the ways in which Iago is characterized through analyzing the language used in the passage.

Do Now:

  • MCQ Quiz #3
  • Between the two depictions of love, which seems more authentic: Othello’s or the one from Sonnet 130? Share your written response in pairs.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practices

  • Step One: Read the passage in the left-hand column trying to grasp basic comprehension of
    the dialogue. Circle any words that you feel you absolutely must know in order to understand the passage.
  • Step Two: Read the passage a second time, this time reading slowly and using the vocabulary presented in the right-hand column to explain the dialogue more fully.
  • Step Three: Read the passage a third time, seeking understand the feelings and attitudes of
    the characters. Underline places that convey emotion or inflection or expresses
    an attitude of each speaker.

Respond:

1.What does Iago tell Roderigo that makes him so upset?
2. What does Iago do to manipulate Roderigo?
3. What makes Iago so persuasive?
4. What is Iago suggesting about Desdemona’s feelings toward Roderigo?
5. How does Iago manipulate the truth about the interaction between Desdemona and Cassio?

Independent Practice:

Share activity 10 ( page 186) and write a brief analysis of Iago based on the passage through Shakespeare’s use of literary devices.

Assessment: Hand in your written analysis.

Homework: Complete Activity 12 ( page 193-195).

__________________________

Day 9

Objectives: Students will be able to explore the ways in which Iago is characterized through analyzing the language used in the passage.

Do now: Peer-review Sonnet analysis essay using the rubric provided.

Mini Lesson

Read Act II scene 2 lines 234-334.

Respond:

1.What does Iago tell Roderigo that makes him so upset?
2. What does Iago do to manipulate Roderigo?
3. What makes Iago so persuasive?
4. What is Iago suggesting about Desdemona’s feelings toward Roderigo?
5. How does Iago manipulate the truth about the interaction between Desdemona and Cassio?

Part B Ted Talk

Activity Eleven: Analyzing the Personality Traits of a Liar
TED Talks are an excellent resource to better understand contemporary perspectives. In this play, lying is at the center of all conflict. Iago lies to Othello, to Roderigo, to Emilia, to Cassio, and to Desdemona. However, the nature of lying is more complex and reveals much about the person who is lying and his or her relationships with others. View the TED Talk titled “How to Spot a Liar” given by Pamela Meyer and answer the following questions. Multiple viewings might be necessary.

Viewing Observations
As you view the TED talk, write down significant observations that you learn from viewing this talk. Be prepared to share your observations with a partner afterwards.

Critical Thinking Questions
Once you have discussed your viewing observations, complete the critical thinking questions with a partner.
1. According to Meyer, what is a lie spotter?
2. Why does a lie spotter practice these techniques?
3. How is lie spotting related to leadership?
4. How does Meyer define lying?
5. What gives a lie power?
6. What does it mean that “lying is a cooperative act”?
7. In your opinion, does Meyer’s argument suggest that she would blame Othello for being susceptible to Iago’s lies?
8. According to Meyer, when are we unwilling participants in deception?
9. In your opinion, is Othello a willing or unwilling participant at this point in the play?

10. Meyer suggests that people who believe lies are often hungry for something. Relate this to
Othello.
a. What is Othello hungry for?
b. What is he willing to give?
c. Does this give Iago power?
d. What is Iago hungry for?
11. Explain her argument that “we are against lying… and covertly for it.”

Independent Practice:

  1. Share activity 10 ( page 186) and write a brief analysis of Iago based on the passage through Shakespeare’s use of literary devices.
  2. Share ” The Physical Qualities of a Liar in Othello” ( page 190)

Homework:  Critical Thinking for Classroom Discussion ( page 192)
Consider Meyer’s TED Talk in its entirety and what you understand about Othello thus far. Then, complete the questions below so that you can appropriately participate in classroom discussion.
1. What does Meyer suggest about the impact technology has had on honesty and our ability to perceive honesty or liars?
2. How do you exempt yourself from living in a lie?
3. Based on this video, to what extent does Iago embody the definition of a liar?
4. Based on this video, to what extent should Othello be able to spot Iago’s lies?

For Wednesday Night homework: In a few paragraphs, use your understanding of Meyer’s point to explain why Iago embodies the definition of a liar.Take a quotation or two from Meyer’s Ted talk about “Liar” as your source.

___________________________

Day 10

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze Iago’s attitude toward Desdemona based on the language used in the scene II.I. 234-334.

  • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Text: Othello Act II SCENE 1
Materials: copies of the SCENE, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do Now: In the line where Iago describes how Desdemona fell in love with Othello, “Mark me with what violence she first loved the Moor but for bragging and telling her fantastical lies“, immediately , what attitude does Iago reveal about Desdemona’s love for Othello? What kind of woman is she in Iago’s eye? Why?

Mini Lesson: Teacher will model how Iago’s language convey’s his resentful attitude toward Desdemona-

<And will she> love him still for prating? Let not
Thy discreet heart think it. Her eye must be fed( passive voice). And
what delight shall she have to look on the devil( the racial slur, derogatory term?)
When the blood( metonymy for what?) is made dull with the act of sport,
there should be, <again> to inflame it and to give
satiety a fresh appetite, loveliness in favor, sympathy
in years, manners, and beauties, all which the Moor
is defective in. Now, for want of these required
conveniences, her delicate tenderness will find it-
self abused, begin to heave the gorge, disrelish and
abhor the Moor…

  • What does Iago do to manipulate Roderigo?
  • What makes Iago so persuasive?
  • How does Iago manipulate the truth about the interaction between Desdemona and Cassio?

Student Independent Practice

Each group( groups of 5) will analyze closely 20 lines. How does  Iago try to manipulate Roderigo? In doing so, how does he convey his attitude toward Desdemona? How does the scene reveal Iago as purely evil?

Each group presents its claim and evidence with analysis.

Homework:  Complete Activity on pages 202-209.

________________________________

Day 11

Objectives: Students will be able to compose a response about the protagonist, Iago through small group discussion and presentation.

  • CCSS
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Text: Othello Act II SCENE 1
Materials: copies of the SCENE, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do now: Present the analysis of assigned 20 lines. How does Iago reveal himself as “evil” whether through his vitriolic attitude toward Desdemona or his manipulating of Rodrigo for his personal gain or his racial bashing of Othello or his concocted lies against Cassio.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

the character ambiguity established in Act Two

As discovered through the activities, it is challenging to clearly and morally define Iago or Othello at this point in the play. Consider the following AP prompt in 2002 AP Literature Question Three

Morally ambiguous characters—characters whose behavior discourages readers from identifying them as purely evil or purely good—are at the heart of many works of literature. Choose a novel or play in which a morally ambiguous character plays a pivotal role. Then write an essay in which you explain how the character can be viewed as morally ambiguous and why his or her moral ambiguity is significant to the work as a whole. Avoid mere plot summary. 

To begin responding to the prompt, answer the following questions.
1. Explore the notion of someone being “purely good.”
a. In what ways is Othello good?
b. What textual detail supports this?
c. What prevents him from being “purely good” at this point?
d. What textual detail supports this?
e. Why is this crucial at this point in the storyline?

2. Explore the notion of someone being “purely evil.”
a. In what ways is Iago evil?
b. What textual detail supports this?
c. What prevents him from being “purely evil” at this point?
d. What textual detail supports this?
e. Why is this crucial at this point in the storyline?
3. How does this ambiguity impact a reader’s perception about each character?

4. How does this ambiguity impact a reader’s perception of good versus evil?

Independent Practice: Responding in Writing

Compose a body paragraph that reflects your reaction to the prompt. Follow the suggested outline for your paragraph.
Paragraphing Structure

  1. Sentence One: A clear statement about the nature of good and evil.
  2. Sentence Two: A description of Othello’s ability to be “purely good.”
  3. Sentence Three: An example that proves your position about whether or not he is “purely good.”
  4. Sentence Four: A description of Iago’s ability to be “purely evil.”
  5. Sentence Five: An example that proves your position about whether or not he is “purely evil.”
  6. Sentence Six: An explanation of how this impacts a reader’s perception.Assessment: Hand in the paragraph.
    Homework: Activity 6 ( pages 211 to 214)

________________________________________________

Day 12 Act 3 

Objectives: Students will be able to

  • explore the ways in which jealousy alters the individual’s ability to accurately perceive reality through a close reading of a Shakespearean sonnet about how  time destroys the individual and a visual analysis of the way in which time is distorted by perception.
  • analyze how Othello’s faith and leadership is being destroyed by his jealousy

Texts: 

  • “Sonnet 60,” a Shakespearean sonnet about the passing of time.
  • Salvador Dali’s Persistence of Memory,

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.6
    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Text: Othello Act III. Sonnet 60, Dali’s painting
Materials: copies of the SCENE, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

“Sonnet 60,” a Shakespearean sonnet about the passing of time. As is true in the Shakespearean sonnet studied in Act Two, this sonnet has three quatrains that pose a problem and one couplet that provides a solution

  1. Matching the Lines with the Paraphrasing( page 203)
    In the right-hand column are the lines paraphrased and scrambled. Draw a line connecting Shakespeare’s line with the paraphrased version.

2. Analyzing a Sonnet
Throughout this sonnet time is symbolized by concrete images. Read the sonnet more closely, considering what each quatrain suggests about the effects of time and its passing. Record this information in the right-hand column. Then, answer the questions that follow. Explain what each quatrain and the final couplet suggest about the passing of time.

Examining Language and Devices
1. Personification is when an object is given human qualities.
a. What is being personified in this sonnet?
b. How is it personified?
2. What does “Nativity” mean in line 5?
3. Study the poetic devices used throughout the poem.
a. There are numerous comparisons made throughout the poem. Identify three comparisons and discuss the significance of each one.
 Comparison #1:
o Significance:
 Comparison #2:
o Significance:
 Comparison #3:
o Significance:
b. How would you categorize the images in lines 5-7?
c. What is the purpose of the images found in the third quatrain?
4. In what way is the couplet indicative of a compliment?

Independent Practice

Activity 1:  Complete Multiple Choice Quiz ( page 206-209)
Use your reading of the poem and your answers to the tasks in the activities to select the best possible answer.

In small groups, discuss why reasons behind each correct answer choice ( page (210)

Reflection: Provide two types of questions that you struggled the most.

Activity 2: Evaluating and Observing an Image
Examine the Salvador Dali painting below, and create a list of observations about the painting. An online image from MoMA can be found here: http://www.moma.org/collection/works/79018

Observations: Once you have examined the painting closely, list the most significant qualities of the image.

Considering an Artist’s Argument, Structure, and Style
In partners, answer the questions below to deepen your knowledge and understanding of the painting.
1. What are three reasons clocks/watches exist in general?
2. What tone is projected since the tree is barren and lacking leaves?
3. What are the two most predominantly used colors?
4. What is being suggested about time since the clocks are melting?
5. The article states that Dali placed “recognizable images…in an unfamiliar context” or “rendered [them] in an unfamiliar way” (line 3).
a. How does this impact the viewer?
b. What is this suggesting about the way perception affects reality?
c. How is this painting suggesting that nothing we see is real?

6. Consider the best way to describe the painting in its entirety.
a. Which of the following words best describes the painting: demented, eccentric,
crazed, irrational?
b. Why did you choose this word instead of the others?
7. If this painting could be described as the epitome of distortion, then what is it suggesting about
how distortion affects people?
8. Essentially, consider what Dali is promoting in his painting.
a. Is Dali promoting reality or illusion?
b. Explain your reasoning.

Assessment: In writing respond to :

How does jealousy  or time alter or distort  the individual’s ability to accurately perceive reality based on the sonnet and painting?

Homework: Read the scene on page 215 ans answer the questions on pages 216 to 218.

______________________________

Day 13 Act 3 

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze how Othello’s faith and leadership is being destroyed by his jealousy

Texts: Act 3 Scene 3 lines 45-102

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.6
    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content..

Materials: copies of the SCENE, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do Now: Share interpretations of Dali’s work. What is being suggested about time since the clocks are melting? The article states that Dali placed “recognizable images…in an unfamiliar context” or “rendered [them] in an unfamiliar way” (line 3). How does this impact the viewer?  What is this suggesting about the way perception affects reality? How is this painting suggesting that nothing we see is real?

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

  • Read Sonnet 60 and paraphrase each line ( page 203)
  • Questions about MCQs
  • Most noticeable theme: how does time affects individuals
  • Most noticeable literary devices used to reveal the theme

Independent Practice

In small groups, discuss and write about-

How is Othello’s judgement  clouded by his growing jealousy?

Act III Scene 3 

1. What does Othello suspect about Cassio and Desdemona in this passage?
2. Consider the message in lines 49-59.
a. What is Desdemona pushing Othello to do in lines 49-59?
b. What is his response?
3. How does Desdemona describe Cassio?
4. How does Desdemona’s perspective affect Othello?
5. Consider how to best describe Desdemona in this excerpt.
a. Which word best describes Desdemona in this excerpt: insistent, submissive, frustrated, or domineering?
b. Why did you choose this word?

6. Consider how to best describe Othello in this excerpt.
a. Which word best describes Othello in this excerpt: passive, doubtful, insecure, or unbending?
b. Why did you choose this word?
7. Consider Othello’s flaws in this excerpt.
a. Which of the following flaws best characterizes Othello in this excerpt: jealous, afraid, overly critical, desire for power, or narrow-mindedness?
b. Why did you choose this word?

________________________

Day 14

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze how Othello’s faith and leadership is being destroyed by his jealousy

Texts: 

  • Act 3 Scene 3 lines 45-102
  • Act 3 Scene 3 lines 389-546

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.6
    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content..

Materials: copies of the excerpts, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do now: In the Ted Talk ” An ode to Envy”, What does Sehgal suggest about how the forces of envy and deception might lead to the eventual downfall of a person’s success and well-being? Sehgal argues that jealousy reveals us to ourselves. Do you agree or disagree with this
statement? Why? She also suggests that jealousy trains us to look with intensity but not accuracy. We become part of fantasy. Is Othello living in a fantasy? How about Iago? Pair share.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Part 1: In Act 3 Scene 3 lines 45-102, Why is Desdemona pleading to Othello on behalf of Cassio? How does Othello’s attitude toward her pleas reveal his tainted views of Desdemona and Cassio by his jealousy?

Part II: Deconstruct the AP Essay prompt from 2005 AP Literature Question Three (Form B)( Page 232)

One of the strongest human drives seems to be a desire for power. Write an essay in which you discuss how a character in a novel or drama struggles to free himself or herself from the power of others or seeks to gain power over others. Be sure to demonstrate in your essay how the author uses this power struggle to enhance the meaning of the work.

Use the Prompt Deconstruction Template

Use this template to deconstruct the prompt and identify the expected tasks.

  1. Paraphrase—Read the prompt. Paraphrase the prompt in the space provided.
    Identify the Task—Examine the task sentence and number the tasks you are expected to
    accomplish in your essay. Task sentences often contain the words “Then, write an essay.”
    Number of Tasks
    Task #1:
    Task #2:
    * There will only be a second task if two commands are linked by the word “and” in the task sentence.
  2. Brainstorm—Based on the background information provided prior to the task sentence,
    consider the assumptions you can make to improve your close reading and writing.
    Open Question
     What is the focus area of the prompt and how is it revealed in your chosen work?
     How does the quotation (if one is provided) help you understand the focus area better?

Part III: Read and discuss Act 3 Scene 3 line 389-546 ( page 219). How does Othello’s jealousy get in the way of his ability to reason properly?

Student Independent PRACTICE

In groups of 3, respond to the questions based on each section.

Section One: Consider Othello’s Characterization in lines 389-420
1. How does Othello describe his mindset the day before?
2. What does Othello say has happened to him now that he suspects Cassio has kissed
Desdemona?
3. At line 409, Othello declares that his occupation is gone. What does this mean?
4. What does Othello demand Iago to give him?
5. What does this say about his state of mind at this point in the play?

Section Two: Consider how Othello’s demeanor changes in lines 421-495.
6. What does Iago begin to question about Othello?
7. Starting at line 470, what proof does Iago give Othello about Cassio and Desdemona’s
affair?
8. What is Othello’s response to this?
9. Then, starting at line 491, Iago provides additional proof for the affair. What evidence
does he offer?
10. Explain the significance of the handkerchief Othello gave to Desdemona.

Section Three: Consider the plan that develops between Othello and Iago in lines 496-546.
11. How does Othello’s demeanor change once he learns that Cassio has the handkerchief he
gave to Desdemona?
12. Identify one phrase that best captures Othello’s view of Desdemona in this section of the
excerpt.
13. What does Othello demand Iago do?
14. What will Othello give Iago for fulfilling this request?

Each group presents the responses to questions of each section.

HW:

  • Read ” Excerpted from “Jealousy Led Bonds to Steroids, Authors Say,” by Jack Curry New York Times March 8, 2006
  • Complete activity 11: progression of a character ( pages 226-228)

____________________________________

Day 15

Objectives: Students will be able t-

  • analyze the gradual decline of Othello’s sanity by exploring how Othello’s character has drastically evolved because of his jealousy and is beginning to reveal signs of insanity;
  •  examine madness in more depth through a class discussion, written response, and connection to a contemporary podcast, Serial.
  • Analyze how a vulnerable speaker who has recently been deserted by a friend and is questioning loyalty in Shakespearean sonnet.
  • apply the theme of desertion and vulnerability in Othello
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.6
    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content..

Materials: copies of the excerpts, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do Now: Complete the small group presentation of Act 3 passage 2 on page 219.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Read and discuss Sonnet 90

Sonnet 90

Then hate me when thou wilt; if ever, now;
Now, while the world is bent my deeds to cross,
Join with the spite of fortune, make me bow,
And do not drop in for an after-loss:
5 Ah, do not, when my heart hath ‘scoped this sorrow,
Come in the rearward of a conquer’d woe;
Give not a windy night a rainy morrow,
To linger out a purposed overthrow.
If thou wilt leave me, do not leave me last,
10 When other petty griefs have done their spite
But in the onset come; so shall I taste
At first the very worst of fortune’s might,
And other strains of woe, which now seem woe,
Compared with loss of thee will not seem so.

Now, read the poem silently and annotate the above described sonnet characteristics. Partner with a peer. Read it aloud to your peer. Then answer the questions below with your partner and record your ideas.

1. Who is the speaker addressing?
2. The word “woe” is repeated
several times throughout. What
can you infer about the speaker?
3. Consider the tone of poem.
a. Circle the feeling you are left
with upon completing your
reading of the poem:
Bereft Confused Sorrowful
b. Why did you choose that word
to describe your reaction?

Independent Practice: 

Activity 1: Analyzing Diction within Sonnet Form
Consider that different sections within a poem can help lead to determining overall meaning. Examine each stanza and identify words that have similar meanings. List these words in the left-hand column and then explain what unifies these words. Then answer the questions about the poem as a whole.
Stanza One: Similar Words or Phrases

Identify examples of similar words.
“hate” “world is bent” “cross”

  • Explain what makes these words similar.
    All of these words seems to communicate the speaker’s struggle or a burden he feels.

Stanza Two. Three and Couplet

  • Identify examples of similar words.
  • Explain what makes these words similar.

Respond to the questions:

1. Using your answers from above, what is the overall tone of the poem?
2. How does each stanza capture a problem the speaker is having?
3. What does the couplet suggest about the speaker’s attitude at the end of the poem?

Activity 2: In small groups of 4, use Multiple Choice Questions and Evidence to Develop Interpretations .Consider the following questions about the poem. The correct answer is indicated; use evidence from your answers above to provide a rationale for why the answer is correct.( pages 245-247)

1. Which of the following best describes the speaker’s present situation?
a. He has recently lost faith in his friend.
b. He has been beset with various problems.
c. He has barely overcome many misfortunes.
d. He has almost lost his will to live.
e. He has seen his fortunes at court decline.
Rationale:________________
2. In the context of the entire poem, it is clear that “if ever” (line 1) expresses the speaker’s
a. inability to understand his friend’s behavior
b. belief that his friend has left him
c. desire that his friend should never turn against him
d. failure to live up to his friend’s ideals
e. assumption that he will prove worthy of his friend’s trust
Rationale:____________________
3. In line 2, “bent” means
a. misshapen
b. molded
c. altered
d. determined
e. convinced
Rationale:______________

4. In the poem, the world and fortune are characterized as
a. hostile to the speaker
b. indifferent to the speaker
c. favorable to the friend
d. exploitable resources
e. fickle friends
Rationale:____________________

5. In context, “a windy night” (line 7) refers to
a. past misfortune
b. a loss of love
c. the friend’s hatred
d. future sorrow
e. present pain
Rationale:___________

6. Which two lines come closest to stating the same idea?
a. Lines 1 and 5
b. Lines 1 and 9
c. Lines 3 and 6
d. Lines 3 and 9
e. Lines 5 and 11
Rationale:___________________

7. In line 12, “the very worst of fortune’s might” refers to the
a. friend’s death
b. friend’s desertion
c. speaker’s grief
d. loss of the speaker’s self-esteem
e. loss of the speaker’s worldly possessions
Rationale:
8. What is the function of the final couplet (lines 13-14)?
a. It explains why the friend should hurt the speaker now.
b. It comments on the speaker’s change of heart.
c. It describes the reasons for the speaker’s behavior.
d. It undercuts the idea that the friend will depart.
e. It suggests that the speaker’s woes are largely self-created.
Rationale:_________________
9. The speaker is best described as displaying which of the following?
a. Anger
b. Jealousy
c. Disappointment
d. Self-love
e. Vulnerability
Rationale:__________________
10. Taken as a whole, the poem is best described as
a. a rationalization
b. an ironic commentary
c. an apology
d. an entreaty
e. a reproof
Rationale:______________

Groups present rationale.

Homework: Read  Act IV Scene 1 lines 244-321 ( page 248) and complete questions on pages 251-252.

___________________________________

Day 16

Objectives: Students will be able t-

  • analyze the gradual decline of Othello’s sanity by exploring how Othello’s character has drastically evolved because of his jealousy and is beginning to reveal signs of insanity;
  •  examine madness in more depth through a class discussion, written response, and connection to a contemporary podcast, Serial.
  • Analyze how a vulnerable speaker who has recently been deserted by a friend and is questioning loyalty in Shakespearean sonnet.
  • apply the theme of desertion and vulnerability in Othello
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.6
    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content..

Materials: copies of the excerpts, AP Essay rubric, discussion questions ; poster papers and markers

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do NOW: Gallery Walk.

Mini Lesson: Characterization and theme

  • desertion and vulnerability
  • sanity driven by jealousy

Your Task: Select a specific passage in Othello by Shakespeare (any excerpt specified in the Othello packet) and analyze how Othello or Iago is portrayed to reveal a specific theme. Be sure to specify the act, scene and line segments.  How does Shakespeare use specific literary devices to portray Othello in the excerpt to reveal a larger theme of the play?

Independent Work

Complete the analysis.

Assessment: Hand in the essay.

Homework: Complete pages from 253-267 in the Othello unit.

_________________________________

Day 18 1/17

Objectives: Students will be able to explore the Themes of Madness

Text: Othello IV.ii.37-110

Agenda

  1. Vital Verbs poster
  2. Discuss IV  II 37-110  ( 253-
  3. Reponding to Madness

AP 2001 Literature Question Three

One definition of madness is “mental delusion or the eccentric behavior arising from it.” But Emily Dickinson wrote Much madness is divinest Sense— To a discerning Eye— Novelists and playwrights have often seen madness with a “discerning Eye.” Select a novel or play in which a character’s apparent madness or irrational behavior plays an important role. Then write a well-organized essay in which you explain what this delusion or eccentric behavior consists of and how it might be judged reasonable. Explain the significance of the “madness” to the work as a whole. Do not merely summarize the plot.

1. Which character suffering from “madness or irrational behavior” do you want to focus upon in the essay? 2. How would you describe this character’s “madness or irrational behavior?” 3. What is one specific example that best highlights this “madness or irrational behavior?” 4. In what way is this behavior reasonable? How could it be justified as appropriate? 5. How does this example/behavior impact the story as a whole?

Responding in Writing Now, use your answers to the questions above to compose a 5-7 sentence response.

HOMEWORK: Activity Eleven(267-268) : Reviewing Traits of a Shakespearean Tragedy( page 274)  After reading Act Four and studying the provided passages, determine the extent to which this Act embodies the definition of a Shakespearean tragedy. Place a check next to which elements appear in Act Four and explain how they are seen. Review the description of each element when evaluating its presence in Act Four. Then, answer the provided questions to help deepen your understanding of traits of a tragedy in more depth.

Day 19 1/18  Understanding a Contemporary Source

Objectives: Students will be to analyze the theme of revenge and jealousy through modern sources that parallel with the themes in Othello.

Texts:

  • Podcasts: Serial Episode One “Season One.” Sarah Koenig. Serial. NPR, n.d. Web 22 Apr. 2016. https://serialpodcast.org/season-one.
  •  Podcasts: Serial Episode Two
  • Season One, Episode Two of Serial

Agenda-

  1. Discuss the themes of madness ( page 259-266) and an open-ended essay question ( 265)
  2. Evaluate  a modern-day Shakespearean tragedy

Critical Thinking Questions

Evaluate the extent to which it represents a modern-day Shakespearean tragedy by completing the following close reading questions.

1. According to the State, what was Adnan’s motive for killing Hae?

2. What are three traits ascribed to Adnan during this excerpt?

3. How would you describe the relationship between Adnan and Hae?

4. What concerns did Hae have of Adnan? 5. What actions committed by Adnan caused people to be suspicious of him?

Independent Practice

Comparing Partner Texts Now, compare and contrast Serial Season One with Othello by exploring the following questions.

1. Kevin Urick, the prosecutor in Seyed’s trial states, “This was not a crime about love, this was a crime about pride.” To what extent is this true with Othello?

2. Which love do you believe to be more genuine: Adnan/Hae or Othello/Desdemona?

3. In what ways are Hae and Desdemona similar?

4. In what ways are they different?

5. In what are Adnan and Othello similar?

6. In what ways are they different?

Homework: Activity Thirteen: Reviewing Traits of a Shakespearean Tragedy Finally, synthesize your answers and place checks next to the elements of a Shakespearean tragedy that appear within the podcast.

_________________________________

Day 20 1/19

Drama Unit: Othello

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze how themes such as isolation and despair  are represented and developed in the Richard II excerpt and make comparison between Richard II and Othello.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.2
    Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.C
    Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.D
    Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

Text: Richard II Act V Scene 5 excerpt from Richard II ( page 282)http://www.folgerdigitaltexts.org/?chapter=5&play=R2&loc=line-5.5.1&_ga=1.256663948.60036500.1484622863

Materials: copies of the excerpts, AP Essay rubric, rhandouts, poster papers and markers, collaborative group work rubric

Resources:

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the text depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the excerpt.

Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Do Now ( 5-7 minutes): How would you describe the development of Othello’ s state of mind as revealed in Act III and IV. Find a line or two textual evidence to back up your inference. Pair share. (5 minutes)

Mini Lesson and Guided Practice( 10 minutes)

In a small reading group of 4- 5, do the following-

( 2 minutes) First, read the excerpt from Richard II Act V Scene 5 and discuss what themes are implied in the excerpt and how Shakespeare develop these themes.

( 5 minutes) I’ll ask some questions and you’ll underline the text that may provide a response to these questions. Put a question number to the line(s) you’ll circle.

  1.  What contrast does Richard draw between his prison and the outside world?
  2. Why does Richard want his brain to be female and his soul to be male?
  3.  What will this union give him?
  4.  What is he plotting to do?
  5.  What is meant when Richard states “play I in one person many people” (line 31)?
  6.  Why is he not contented with these different roles (line 32)?
  7.  Why does he wish he were a beggar (line 33)?
  8.  According to Richard, what pleases men?
  9. What does it mean to be “eas’d/With being nothing’?

( 5 minutes) Now go back to the text and-

  • circle key words and phrases that either you feel need to be further explored or contribute to the overall meaning of the text.
  • Put on top of the text one key word that suggests a theme of the passage.
  • Raise one question that is related to the possible theme that you’ll explore further.

Excerpt from Richard II Act V Scene 5 Lines 1-41

  1. I have been studying how I may compare
  2. This prison where I live unto the world;
  3. And for because the world is populous,
  4. And here is not a creature but myself,
  5. I cannot do it; yet I’ll hammer it out.
  6. My brain I’ll prove the female to my soul,
  7. My soul the father, and these two beget
  8. A generation of still-breeding thoughts;
  9. And these some thoughts people this little world,
  10. In humors like the people of this world:
  11. For no thought is contented. The better sort,
  12. As thoughts of things divine, are intermix’d
  13. With scruples and do set the word itself
  14. Against the word,
  15. As thus: “Come, little ones,” and then again,
  16. “It is as hard to come as for a camel
  17. To thread the postern of a small needle’s eye.”
  18. Thoughts tending to ambition, they do plot
  19. Unlikely wonders: how these vain weak nails
  20. May tear a passage thorough the flinty ribs
  21. Of this hard world, my ragged prison walls;
  22. And for they cannot, die in their own pride.
  23. Thoughts tending to content flatter themselves
  24. That they are not the first of fortune’s slaves,
  25. Nor shall not be the last—like silly beggars
  26. Who sitting in the stocks refuge their shame,
  27. That many have and others must sit there;
  28. And in this thought they find a kind of ease,
  29. Bearing their own misfortunes on the back
  30. Of such as have before endur’d the like.
  31. Thus play I in one person many people,
  32. And none contented. Sometimes am I king;
  33. Then treasons make me wish myself a beggar,
  34. And so I am. Then crushing penury
  35. Persuades me I was better when a king;
  36. Then am I king’d again, and by and by
  37. Think that I am unking’d by Bullingbrook,
  38. And straight am nothing. But what e’er I be,
  39. Nor I, nor any man that but man is,
  40. With nothing shall be pleas’d, till he be eas’d
  41. With being nothing.

 (5 Minutes )Responding in Writing:  Based on your reading of the excerpt from Richard II, describe how King Richard II’S character as revealed in the passage and compare how his character is similar to that of Othello’s. Through such portrayal, what possible themes are implied?

Student Independent Practice ( 20 minutes)

The class will be divided into 5 groups of 4 and each group will be assigned 2- 3 questions:

  • Group 1: Cassie, Brian, Mykai, David Dong ( Qs1-3)
  • Group 2: Shuzel, Romelo, Amberlyn and Sojal ( Qs 4-6)
  • Group 3: Juleissy, Jesiree, John, Michelle ( Qs7-9)
  • Group 4: Evan, Ashley, Karen, Issaiah ( Qs10-12)
  • Group 5: Jalon, Jasmin David R, Angelica ( Qs 13-14)

Students will continue analyzing Richard II’s character through the close reading activity of completing a set of multiple choice questions. In this collaborative group activity,  students will –

  1. first make an individual choice ( 2 minutes)
  2. then, argue out among group members the correct answer for each assigned question and record it in the group MCQ sheet ( 5 minutes)
  3. finally, each group shares and defends their answers in the whole group.( 13 minutes); other groups can challenge the answer. As a class, they will create one final answer sheet and will be graded by the teacher.
  4. The class will receive one grade based on the final class debate results.

1. The phrase “prove the female” (line 6) emphasizes which of the following?
A. The delicacy of the soul
B. The brain’s ability to conceive
C. The soul’s intuitive nature
D. The feminine nature of the artist
E. The need to be merciful

2. In lines 6-8, there is an implied comparison between thoughts and
A. reasons
B. walls
C. children
D. artisans
E. humors

3. In lines 10-11, King Richard implies that “the people of this world” are
A. more fortunate than he is
B. dissatisfied and temperamental
C. impassive and unfeeling
D. inclined to generosity
E. gullible and unwise

4. In lines 15-17, King Richard makes use of
A. metaphysical conceits
B. Biblical allusions
C. understatement
D. oxymoron
E. self-parody

5. The two quotations in lines 15-17 are seen by King Richard as
A. contradictory
B. comforting
C. absurd
D. trite
E. clever

6. King Richard’s “Thoughts tending to ambition” (line 18) are not comforting because they
A. propose an impossible task
B. recount a problem from the past
C. foretell another deposition
D. constitute a criminal act
E. present a paradoxical solution

7. In line 25, the “silly beggars” are mentioned as which of the following?
A. Subjects who loved Richard in former times
B. Part of the rabble that opposes legitimate authority
C. People in a condition analogous to Richard’s present state
D. The common people who form the backbone of the nation
E. Criminals who have committed acts similar to Richard’s own deeds

8. In line 28, “this thought” refers to the idea that the
A. world is ages old
B. plight is not without precedent
C. monarchy cannot remain unprincipled for long
D. time will come when the crime will be forgiven
E. best comfort lies in one’s own mind

9. When King Richard says “Then am I king’d again” (line 36), he means that he
A. has once again been topped by Bolingbroke
B. has gained a spiritual kingdom to replace his worldly one
C. perceives the true value of kingship
D. imagines that he is a monarch once again
E. can do without the external trappings of royalty

10. In line 38, “straight” is best interpreted as meaning
A. uncomplicated
B. honest
C. clearly
D. implicitly
E. immediately

11.Which of the following best restates the meaning of lines 39-341?
A. Nothing that the world can provide can make the average person content.
B. Only someone who has lost everything can understand the importance of possessions.
C. A king must understand that he too is mortal before he can find solace.
D. Only after death can a mere mortal be satisfied with having nothing.
E. A deposed king can find true comfort only in his mind.

12. In the passage, King Richard uses language primarily to
A. consider his plight
B. soothe his conscience
C. justify his wrongdoing
D. assail his enemies
E. recreate the past

13. In the passage, King Richard reflects on all of the following EXCEPT
A. religion
B. others’ misfortunes
C. escape
D. deposition
E. revenge

14. In the passage, King Richard exhibits which of the following?
A. Social and political astuteness
B. Verbal and rhetorical facility
C. Single-minded intensity
D. Narrow-minded prejudice
E. Clear and unwavering judgment

Each group will copy the final answer on the class answer sheet.

Teacher evaluate the answers and give a final grade to the class.

Homework: Read entire Act V with specific attention to V.ii.310-332 by Othello( page 288 in the packet)  and respond in writing how Othello faces similar predicament as Richard has in this scene. Be sure to provide textual evidence for your conclusion.

_______________________________________________

Spring Term  
Day 1

 Drama Unit: Othello

Objectives: Students will be able to

  • analyze how Othello feels betrayed by those around him and driven to despair in Act V Scene 2
  • explore the connection between Richard’s soliloquy and Othello’s feelings of separation by examining a set of  multiple choice questions
  • analyze the impact of the play’s ending and how it contributes to the overall meaning of the play
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.2
    Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
    Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.C
    Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.D
    Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

Materials: copies of the excerpts, text handouts ; poster papers and markers, collaborative group work rubric

Resources:

Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the text depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the excerpt.

Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Texts: 

  • Act V Scene 2
  • V.ii.424-435

( 5 minutes) Do Now: Share in pairs your writing from homework assignment on comparing Othello with Richard II.

Mini Lesson: ( 15 minutes)

Activity 1: ( 7 minutes) We’ll read a scene from  Act V Scene 2 and use the previous Multiple Choice questions to examine the connections between King Richard and Othello

  • First read the scene below and underline words and phrases that reveal Othello’s feelings and state of mind.
  • In the small reading group, describe Othello’s character and determine one overall theme revealed by the scene.  Use textual evidence to illustrate or support the theme.
  • Write the theme on top of the text.

OTHELLO( Lines 310-333) -Read the Folger version

Behold, I have a weapon;
A better never did itself sustain
Upon a soldier’s thigh: I have seen the day,
That, with this little arm and this good sword,
I have made my way through more impediments
Than twenty times your stop: but, O vain boast!
Who can control his fate? ’tis not so now.
Be not afraid, though you do see me weapon’d;
Here is my journey’s end, here is my butt,
And very sea-mark of my utmost sail.
Do you go back dismay’d? ’tis a lost fear;
Man but a rush against Othello’s breast,
And he retires. Where should Othello go?
Now, how dost thou look now? O ill-starr’d wench!
Pale as thy smock! when we shall meet at compt,
This look of thine will hurl my soul from heaven,
And fiends will snatch at it. Cold, cold, my girl!
Even like thy chastity. O cursed slave!
Whip me, ye devils,
From the possession of this heavenly sight!
Blow me about in winds! roast me in sulphur!
Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire!
O Desdemona! Desdemona! dead!
Oh! Oh! Oh!

( 9 minutes) Activity 2 ( In a small group): Explore the connection between Richard’s soliloquy and Othello’s feelings of separation by examining the multiple choice questions and considering the extent to which they apply to this passage from Othello. In the left-hand column are the questions with the answers in bold. In the right-hand column answer the questions posed to draw out the relationship with Othello.

Each group( 3-4) is assigned with 1 question-

  • discuss ( 3 minutes)
  • present( 6 minutes)
Questions from the Richard II Multiple Choice Quiz Questions to Highlight Connections
3. In lines 10-11, King Richard implies that “the people of this world” are
a. more fortunate than he is
b. dissatisfied and temperamental
c. impassive and unfeeling
d. inclined to generosity
e. gullible and unwise
What does Othello imply about “the people of this world” in his speech?
6. King Richard’s “Thoughts tending to ambition” (line 18) are not comforting because they
a. propose an impossible task
b. recount a problem from the past
c. foretell another deposition
d. constitute a criminal act
e. present a paradoxical solution
What proof from the passage supports that Othello feels challenged with an impossible task?
8. In line 28, “this thought” refers to the idea that the
a. world is ages old
b. plight is not without precedent
c. monarchy cannot remain unprincipled for long d. time will come when the crime will be forgiven e. best comfort lies in one’s own mind
What is Othello suggesting about his plight?
11.Which of the following best restates the meaning of lines 39-341?
a. Nothing that the world can provide can make the average person content.
b. Only someone who has lost everything can understand the importance of possessions.
c. A king must understand that he too is mortal before he can find solace.
d. Only after death can a mere mortal be satisfied with having nothing.
e. A deposed king can find true comfort only in his mind.
What does Othello suggest about the satisfaction of death?
12. In the passage, King Richard uses language primarily to
a. consider his plight
b. soothe his conscience
c. justify his wrongdoing
d. assail his enemies
e. recreate the past
What is Othello’s plight in this passage?
13. In the passage, King Richard reflects on all of the following EXCEPT
a. religion
b. others’ misfortunes
c. escape
d. deposition
e. revenge
Identify instances from the passage in which Othello reflects on
-Religion
-Others’ misfortunes
-Escape
-Deposition-

Independent Practice ( 20 minutes)

In a reading group of 4, students will do the following-

  1. Analyze the final lines of the Play -The play concludes with Iago apprehended and Othello dead. The final lines of the play are devoted to Lodovico as he seeks to restore order in the province. How does the ending the play contribute to the theme? What questions would you like to ask?
  2. Discuss Critical Thinking Questions
    A. Who inherits Othello’s house and fortunes?
    B. What does Lodovico do with Iago?
    C. What position is Cassio given?
    D. Who is Lodovico going to inform of what has happened to Othello?E. How does the ending reveal an overall theme of the play?
  3. Explore an AP Open Ended Essay Question-People have debated the role of endings for centuries. The way in which a reader responds to the ending of a text ultimately impacts hie/her understanding of the work itself.

Day 2

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate the ending of the play by writing a formal response based on the prompt provided.

Do Now: Read the prompt and ask two questions based on the prompt that you believe you are expected to respond in writing.

1973 AP Literature Question Three

An effective literary work does not merely stop or cease; it concludes. In the view of some critics, a work that does not provide the pleasure of significant closure has terminated with an artistic fault. A satisfactory ending is not, however, always conclusive in every sense; significant closure may require the reader to abide with or adjust to ambiguity and uncertainty. In an essay, discuss the ending of a novel or play of acknowledged literary merit. Explain precisely how and why the ending appropriately or inappropriately concludes the work. Do not merely summarize the plot.

Prior to writing your response, develop a deeper understanding of the prompt by answering the following questions.
1. Describe the resolution of the play in 3-5 sentences.
2. What in the play do readers have to “abide with or adjust”?
3. In your opinion-,
a. Is the ending appropriate or inappropriate?
b. How is it appropriate or inappropriate?
c. Why is it appropriate or inappropriate?

4. Identify three specific details from the ending that support your position and explain how these examples support your position.

5. What is the function or purpose of the ending of Othello?

( 5 minutes) Assessment of understanding through a whole class activity 

In writing, respond to the topic:

Consider the character of Othello over the course of the entire play. Then, determine to what extent is Othello to blame for the misfortune he endures throughout the play. Use the conclusions you have drawn through this lesson to explore the question  You may consider the following questions while writing your response-

1. What responsibility does Othello have for the death of Desdemona?
2. Is Othello a jealous person by nature or does Iago manipulate him and create the jealousy?
3. In your opinion, could this misfortune be brought out only by Iago?
4. In your opinion, should Othello regret not giving the promotion to Iago in the beginning?

In small groups, share the written response.

Independent Practice: Read the Question 3 Prompt from year 2015 AP Lit exam.

Study the sample student responses as well as the scoring rubric. 

 

Homework:

Part A: After reading Act Five and studying the provided passages, determine the extent to which this Act embodies the definition of a Shakespearean tragedy. Answer the following questions to gain a deeper understanding of the elements of a tragedy as they pertain to the play as a whole.

1. Was Iago’s plan successful? Did he get what he wanted?
2. Which best describes Othello’s fatal flaw: jealousy, distrust, desire for control, or ignorance?Explain your answer.
3. To what extent is Othello’s catharsis genuine?
4. Now that the play has concluded, with whom does Othello have the central conflict: himself, Desdemona, or Iago? Explain your answer.

Part B: An essay response based on the Open-ended question is due on Jan. 23.

Day 22 1/21