Iliad by Homer

Unit 5: Iliad by Homer Translated by Alexander Homer

Unit Description:  In the unit, students will learn more literary tropes used to describe characters, conflicts and also become familiar with allusions. Philosophical ideas will be presented by carefully paired creative non-fictional texts to present different views. Student will read one “book” in the epic in every two days. While reading, they will annotate the given texts, ask questions and bring their notes  to the class for discussions. They will keep a dialectical journal each day and use it as an entrance point for small group or class discussions. They will write a critical summary for each book, two dialectical journals as well as identify a real life issue to the problems discussed in the text. They will keep a glossary of new vocabulary as well as names of the Greek heroes and Greek Gods and Goddesses. Students will gain understanding that why Iliad is a well of stories where authors retrieve their materials.  We will also study Pope’ preface to the epic, from which students will learn about the translator’s views on the epic, therefore, to establish whether his translation in a sense is “ biased” toward his own beliefs.


  1. Epic Iliad by Homer
  2. Pope’s Preface to the epic
  3. Poetry Translation Guidelines

 Enduring Understanding(s)

Students will understand that-

  • epic poetry consists of larger-than-life kind of heroes and gods and goddesses
  • an epic often involves mortals and immortals as characters and its theme very often centers on quests
  • the art of story-telling is the foundation of civilization.
  • The Iliad is a foundation block of western literature.
  • War has profound effects on individuals and the human heart gains its strengths and weaknesses from the glorification of war

Essential Questions

  1. What is the role of women inThe Iliad? Does the poem contain any strong female characters, or do the acts and deeds of males dominate the work? Why?
  2. What role does fate play in the emotional and psychological effect ofThe Iliad? Why does Homer make his characters aware of their impending dooms?
  3. Is there a “heroic code” that guides the decisions of the characters inThe Iliad? Does one character emerge as more heroic than the rest? Does one character emerge as less heroic? Why or why not?
  4. How does Homer portray  the gods in The Iliad. What is their relationship with mortals? With fate? Why might Homer have chosen the gods as a frequent source of comic relief? What larger points does Homer seem to be making by depicting the gods as he does?
  5. How doesThe Iliad portrays relationships between fathers and sons as seen in Priam and Hector, as well as to Achilles and Peleus? In what way does ancestral loyalty affect the characters’ behavior considering the encounter between Diomedes and Glaucus as well. How do relationships between fathers and sons differ from those between mothers and sons?
  6. Does Achilles ultimately emerge as a sympathetic character? Why or why not?
  7. How does Book VI differ from most of the Iliad?
  8. What is the purpose of the story of Diomedes, Odysseus, and Dolon in the overall plot of the Iliad?
  9. What is the symbolic meaning of Achilles’ shield?  Athena’s?
  10. What is the significance of the speech of Achilles’ horse?
  11. How does  the fight between Achilles and Hector symbolize the ancient values?
  12. How does Achilles change over the course of the poem?

Assessment Evidence

Diagnostic Assessment(s) :

  •  Respond to questions related to the “what, where, when and how”
  • Quiz on the required background knowledge of the epic
  • Dialectical journals
  •  vocabulary quizzes

Formative: reading responses, quick writes, synthesis journals, PBFF (passage based focused free writing) , responding to specific quotations, writing a terza rima sonnet

  • Select a short passage from the Iliad and and tell it in your own way or write the lead paragraph of a newspaper or magazine article from the passage.
  •  design a cartoon either funny, satirical, or political from an event in the Iliad.
  • keep a journal for a particular character. The events in the diary will be told from that character’s point of view.

Summative Performance Assessment:

  • A textual analysis essay on the use of writing strategy
  • A textual analysis essay on the use of irony
  • An argumentative essay
  • Write and present or perhaps improvise small dramatic presentations between two or among three or four characters on the following scene-
    • the conversation between Chryses and Agamemnon in book 1
    • the confrontation between Agamemnon and Achilles in book 1.
    • the family scene between Hector and Andromache in book 6.
    • Hector gets killed by Achilles
  • Portfolio


  • hard copies of the epic translated by A. Pope
  • informational articles on existentialism
  • analysis rubric
  • argumentative writing rubric
  • portfolio rubric
  • unit website:
  • grammar interactive activities:


  1. teacher-created unit website:
  2. grammar websites with interactive activities
  3. online thesaurus:
  4. online dictionary:
  5. online grammar help-
  6. ( Principals of Composition)
  7. Resources: Use the translation guide to find meanings of Greek or Tojan names and places in Iliad by Homer (

Common Core Learning Standards


RL.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.RL.9-10.2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.RL.9-10.3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.RL.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).W.9-10.2 :Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.W.9-10.4 : Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.W.9-10.5 : Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.W.9-10.9a:  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and  research. Apply grades9–10 Reading standards to literature e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).CCS Standards: Speaking & Listening SL.9-10.1b:  Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed. SL.9-10.1c : Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.SL.9-10.1d: Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

Lesson 1

Session 1: Writing

 Objectives: Students will gain information about the civilization and culture of the ancient Greeks and establish a time frame for the Greek culture and for the Iliad by watching and responding to a documentary “The Golden Age of Greece” by Winchester

Aim: What was time frame of The Golden Age of Greece? What did the ancient Greeks accomplish? How does it contribute to the creation of Homer’s Iliad?


Motion Picture –The Golden Age of Greece (Winchester) (30 minutes)(

Mini Lesson

We will review the Concepts that pertain to the ancient Greece:

  • time fame
  • the Golden Age
  • Hellenic
  • Agora
  • Acropolis

We will watch the the Golden Age of Greece (Winchester)

 Student Independent Activity:

In small groups, use your notes to discuss the following questions-

____1. Nature of polis

____2. Difference between Athens and Sparta

____3. How did justice come to Athens according to legend?

____4. What purpose did the Pan Hellenic games serve?

____5. What was the nature of Greek art?

____6. What do we learn about Greek civilization from their poetry?

____7. Would you have liked to have lived during that time? Why or why not?

Homework: Create a timeline. Mark center to represent year Christ was born. Mark forward and backward in 1000 year blocks. Mark off important dates you know with different colored markers. Example: the year Columbus discovered America, the year the airplane was invented, Edison discovers light bulb, the Declaration of Independence was signed, your own birthdays. Mark approximate date Mycenaean empire fell, date of events in Iliad, approximate date poem written down, approximate date of first pan-Hellenic games.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will gain contextual information about the epic by reading and sharing information about the epic, the Paris and Helen story and Greek Gods.

Aim: What did the Greeks already know before they read the epic? Why is the context important?

Do Now: Share in pairs any information you know about Iliad from the summer reading.

Share in class.

Mini Lesson:

Meter of the epic: dactylic hexameter (

The Tradition of the Dactylic Hexameter.  Before plunging into the technical details, a few introductory words are in order.  Greek and Latin poems follow certain rhythmic schemes, or meters, which are sometimes highly defined and very strict, sometimes less so.  Epic poetry from Homer on was recited in a particular meter called the dactylic hexameter.  It is fair to say that the dactylic hexameter defines epic.  That is, it is impossible to conceive of an epic poem not composed in hexameters;  and the hexameter rhythms, when heard, signal that the poem being recited is an epic of some sort.  (It is true that in Homer’s era, epics were more sung than recited, to the accompaniment of a lyre.  This was not the practice in Virgil’s day, when the spoken word was preferred.)

Fingers.  The word dactylos is Greek for “finger” (and for “toe” as well, which picks up on the notion of  feet, below).  The dactyl is therefore a snippet of rhythm that resembles, at least aurally, a finger.  It has a rhythmic shape consisting of one long syllable (noted as ), which represents the long bone, or phalanx, of the finger, plus two short syllables (), which represent the two short phalanges.  Figure A will illustrate the concept better than any further remarks.

Student Independent Practice:

Student will first read the assigned reading and discuss in their small group how they will teach the class the passage they have read. Each group will present their study notes with the class-

(Group 1) Passage 1: What is the Iliad?

The Iliad is a long narrative poem in dactylic hexameter. The story combines the history, legends, and religion of the ancient Greeks with the imagination, invention, and lively story-telling abilities of a great poet. The events in the Iliad were as well known to the ancient Greeks. And, like a favorite story or song, the ancient Greeks wanted to hear this story, the Iliad, told again and again.

The poem begins with a dispute between the Greek king, Agamemnon, and the great soldier and Greek prince, Achilles. After a recent battle, each Greek hero has received spoils as his reward for victory. The king has received the most wealth and a beautiful woman, Chryseis, and each warrior has received his share of the spoils according to his rank and heroism.

Chryses, a priest of Apollo and Chryseis’ father, comes to Agamemnon with gifts and offerings to ransom his daughter. Against the advice of the army, however, Agamemnon refuses to let Chryseis go and Chryses prays to Apollo for revenge. Apollo sends a plague into the Greek army and many men die.

Achilles realizes that this scourge may be divine retribution and asks Calchas, a prophet, why they are suffering. Calchas, after extracting a promise of protection from Achilles, explains that Agamemnon has offended Apollo by refusing to return Chryseis.

Achilles confronts Agamemnon who grudgingly agrees to return Chryseis, but who then takes Achilles’ woman, Briseis, as a reminder that he, Agamemnon, is king. Achilles is inconsolable and asks his mother Thetis, a goddess of the sea, to persuade Zeus to punish Agamemnon by aiding the Trojans until his, Achilles’ honor is restored.

Thetis does as her son bids, and Zeus agrees with the result that the gods, already divided in their loyalties, enter the fray, each god fighting for or protecting his or her own: Athena and Hera supporting the Greeks while Apollo and Aphrodite support Troy. This expansion of hostilities further complicates the relationships among the Trojans, the Greeks, and their gods, and the resulting disputes form the basis of this epic poem.

But why are the Greeks and Trojans fighting? Why are the gods displaying so much love or hatred for one or the other side?

The answers lie in the events of Greek myths and legends which occur before this poem begins, and in the relationship the ancient Greeks had with their gods and goddesses.

Passage 2: The Story before the Story (Group 2)

Before students begin to read the Iliad, they need to learn about the legend of Paris and Helen. This can be done by film or filmstrip, by reading the story or simply by the instructor telling students the story.

There was much feasting at the wedding of Peleus, king of Phthia, and Thetis, a sea goddess who would bear a son, Achilles. Everyone was happy and celebrating. Athena, Hera and Aphrodite were at the feast and amicably conversing when a golden apple rolled at their feet. Peleus picked it up and was embarrassed to find that it was inscribed to the fairest. No one knew for which goddess the apple was intended.

The golden apple had actually been tossed by Eris who was angry that she had not been invited to the feast. Zeus was asked to award the apple to the “fairest” goddess, but he tactfully declined and assigned Paris, one of the Princes of Troy (Priam’s second son) the unwelcome task.

Each goddess desired to be known as the most beautiful, and competed aggressively for the apple. Each goddess willingly disrobed so that Paris could see that she was “fairest”. Paris first examined Hera who promised him all of Asia and great wealth if he would choose her. Paris refused the bribe.

He next examined Athena who promised to make Paris victorious in all battles. She also promised to make him the most handsome and wise man in the world. Paris also refused this offer.

Finally, Aphrodite promised that she could offer Paris Helen, the wife of Menalaos (King of Sparta and Agamemnon’s brother) and the most beautiful mortal woman in the world, to become Paris’ bride. After Aphrodite swore that she could make Helen fall in love with him, Paris awarded her the apple. This decision so angered Hera and Athena that they plotted the destruction of Troy.

Aphrodite, long before this event, had doomed Helen and her sisters because their father, Tyndareus, had sacrificed to the other gods but had forgotten to offer a sacrifice to her. Aphrodite, therefore, swore to make his daughters known for adultery. Of course, Aphrodite approved Paris’ decision.

Later Paris, following Aphrodite’s’ instruction, visited Menalaos as a friend but eloped with Helen. The Greeks came to Troy to regain Helen and Menelaus’ honor.

Passage 3: Gods, Greeks and the Iliad ( Group 3)

The ancient Greeks viewed the cause of the Trojan war not only as a dispute among men but also as a desire of the gods. In effect, one is led to believe upon reading the Iliad that if the gods had not involved themselves men might have settled their differences with much less bloodshed. In this story, men are in a moral sense better than gods.

This view of the relationship between man and the divine is very different from the ordinary view of things in our present primarily Judeo-Christian society. Most of our students and ourselves think of the divinity as one being who has the ability to control everything (though he may not choose to do so) and who understands everything.

In the Iliad there are multiple gods, each having his own specialty and all loosely controlled by a leader, Zeus, in the same way men are often governed by a king or other dictator.

The Judeo-Christian god in addition to being all-powerful and all knowing is also thought of today as a just being who has the care and protection of mankind as goals.

The gods of the Iliad are physically more powerful than men, but they have their own weaknesses and desires which are also greater than the weaknesses and desires of mankind, and which are often hostile to the well-being of mankind. Additionally, the gods’ relationship with one another sometimes places man at risk. For example, it is Hera’s and Athena’s rivalry with Aphrodite as well as their hostility toward Paris which causes and extends the bloodshed of the Trojan war.

It also seems true in this story that in some ways men understand their gods better than their gods understand them. For while men often petition their gods for favor, few mortals actually confidently expect their gods’ beneficence. A man is happy to receive the kindness or protection of the gods, but is not surprised if the gods do not respond, or indeed if those same gods choose deliberately to harm him. Hector prays for his deliverance from death and Troy’s deliverance from destruction, but does not really expect it. Before returning to battle, Hector visits his wife, Andromache, and their baby son, Astyanax. Andromache expresses her fears and pleads with Hector not to return to battle. Hector replies:

Lady, these many things beset my mind no less than yours. But I should die of shame before our Trojan men and noblewomen if like a coward I avoided battle, nor am I moved to. Long ago I learned how to be brave, how to go forward always and to contend for honor, Father’s and mine. Honor in my heart and soul I know a day will come when ancient Ilion [Troy] falls, when Priam and the folk of Priam perish.

Andromache, Hector’s wife, mourns her husband long before his actual death.

He Hector stooped now to recover his plumed helm as she, his dear wife [Andromache], drew away, her head turned and her eyes upon him, brimming tears. She made her way in haste then to the ordered house of Hector and rejoined her maids, moving them all to weep at sight of her. In Hector’s home they mourned him, living still but not, they feared, again to leave the war or be delivered from Akhaian Greek fury. The Greeks believed that some inanimate objects were also gods and that the gods could choose to change from the object to the form of a human and back at will. Achilles, for instance, battles a river that is also a god.

Now Xanthos [a river and  god] surged in turbulence upon Akhilleus, tossing his crest, roaring with spume and blood and corpses rolling, and a dark wave towering out of the river fed by heaven swept downward to overwhelm the son of Peleus.

In the Iliad also, horses speak, the four winds are goddesses, and fire is a god, Haephaestos, who fights at one point with the river, Xanthos. These are only a few examples of the manner in which the ancient Greeks personified objects.

Therefore, in a real sense, we cannot fully understand the ancient Greeks’ perception of their gods nor, therefore, their world. However, by discussing noted differences in outlook as displayed in the Iliad, students can at least glimpse some of the gap in our understanding of the ancient world.

Passage 4: The Hero and the Epic (group 4)

An epic is a long, complex story, often told in poetic form. The events in an epic are usually proclaimed to be true or divinely inspired, and often derive from the myths, legends, and religions of the civilization from which the epic comes.

Although length and complexity are hallmarks of the epic poem, the most important element is the hero. The hero of an epic is a human being with characteristics a society admires and often wishes to emulate. The hero is male, attractive, and unusually strong and able. He is a trained soldier or warrior and believes in and follows a code of honor for which he is willing to sacrifice his life. He fights for the noble cause: those who cannot defend themselves, usually women and children, the preservation of a society, honor and the noble way of life. The hero is considered better in most respects than the common man.

However, the hero is also in many ways the same as the ordinary man. He has the same longings and desires as any man might have: the desire to be beloved and respected by his own, the desire for some degree of wealth or material comfort, the desire for a family with children, especially sons like himself, the desire to stand out above his fellow human beings in some way, the desire not to bring shame to himself or his family in any way. The hero also hopes that the divine will favor him and his cause.

The hero becomes tragic when some error or fault, often inborn, of his own making, brings about his own death and usually the destruction of others. Often the hero has insight and realizes before anyone else what his fate will be. However, for reasons of his own, he forges ahead. The hero is mortal and vulnerable.

James M. Redfield in Nature and Culture in the Iliad describes the hero as having a “social task”. When he is successful the hero is rewarded most generously but failure brings destruction.

Achilles, in the Iliad, does the right thing but must therefore isolate himself because of it. His rage at his loss of honor brings greater destruction to the Greeks and loss of Patroclus, his closest companion. Only these disasters enable Achilles to reenter his society and the war and thus regain his honor.

Hector remains intimately bound to his family and society and must at all costs defend them. He does not want to fight a war which his brother has provoked. Hector clearly sees his ultimate defeat and the destruction of his city. However, he cannot do anything that will bring disgrace to himself and his family.

There are many articles and books which analyze in great depth Achilles and Hector as hero. The instructor will find a few of these texts in the bibliography of this paper. An important aspect of this section is that students should learn something about the nature of a hero in epic literature. Having students describe what they think is heroic and comparing contrasting their ideas with those of the poet is an effective way to help them understand why Achilles and Hector, as the heroes, behave as they do.

End of the Lesson Assessment: Collect notes of the passages from each group to assess student understanding.

Homework: Type up the notes and share with the rest of the class.

Lesson 2

Session 1:Writing

Objectives: Students will examine the Homeric question by reading a passage as well as doing online research; students will get into the epic text by reading the selected book summary and choosing a role to play throughout  the story.

Aim:  What is the Homeric question? Why is important to speculate the answer to such a question?

Do Now: What do you know about Homer? You may do online research to gather information and share it in a pair and class.

Mini Lesson

Read the passage below and make a list of issues concerning the author of the epic:

The Homeric Question

Most high school texts containing the lliad describe Homer as a specific individual who authored the Iliad. The fact is that no one really knows for certain who wrote the poem. The lliad was probably written in the eighth century B.C. when alphabetic writing was introduced to Greece, but the events described in the story took place in the 13th century B.C. or approximately 500 years before the story was written down.

Most Hellenists, at least in America, believe that the story was passed along in the oral tradition by story-tellers who received food and shelter, and later money, for their talents. Before the written word the stories were not memorized per se. The poet knew the folk legends and myths of his people. He also knew the meter in which his poem was to be spoken, and he had a ready supply of stock phrases tailored to specific characters and events. With this knowledge the poet was able to convey thousands of stories to his audience. Each story was a little different each time the poet told it because he wove a little bit of his own invention into the telling of the story. There were many papyrus versions of the Iliad, each a little different from the other. Imagine the great variety of oral renditions of this story there must have been!

It is the inconsistencies in narrative of the Iliad and the Odyssey which have been and still are the cause of controversy among scholars concerning the authorship of these two epics. An example of one kind of inconsistency which puzzles scholars is the following. In book five of the lliad Pylaimenes, king of the Paphlagonians, is slain. However, in book thirteen, Pylaimenes reappears mourning the death of his son Harpalion.

Another kind of difficulty which fans the controversy are the varying interpretations given to particular passages of the Iliad. Albin Lesky in History of Greek Literature uses as an example of this the wall that the Greeks built to protect their ships. Some theorists claim that there is no plausible reason for the wall building, others say it is an integral part of the plot, and still others feel that the wall is symbolic or that it was an invention of the poet.

The results of these inconsistencies are several theories about how the poem was written. The Iliad and the Odyssey were first analyzed by the Alexandrians, some of whom theorized that the two epics were written by different poets but who did not pull apart the individual epics. Starting in the eighteenth century there came analytic theorists who thought there were many poems which had been combined into one. The Unitarian theory states that one poet created entirely both the Iliad and the Odyssey, or at least each epic was written by one individual. The expansion theory maintains there was an original core to which other episodes are attached. Though there is little objective data to decisively favor one theory over another, modern theorists tend to support the idea that the Iliad and Odyssey developed from the oral tradition and that the poet who wrote them down was probably one man who gathered material from many sources and in addition added new material of his own. Some scholars propose that the composer was illiterate and dictated the work to a scribe; others contend that he wrote his own manuscript.

Students should understand that because of our limited knowledge there is no way of knowing definitively whether Homer was one man or many or whether he wrote the entire Iliad or parts of it. Another question, only to be mentioned here, which still puzzles scholars is whether the Iliad and the Odyssey were written down by the same individual. Indeed, we don’t really know if the poet’s name really was Homer. One supposed characteristic of Homer which probably was not true was blindness. If the composer was the same man as the scribe (as seems probable to me) he could not have been blind.

Independent Practice:

We will read closely the following 11 books for this unit.

Students will read assigned summary of each book and piece together the themes or issues explored in the poem.

Critical Summary-

Book 1:Book one was outlined earlier in this paper. It is basic to the understanding of the Iliad. It tells that the poem is about the anger of Achilles and it details the dispute between Agamemnon and Achilles. It is also an easy chapter to read, understand and enjoy. (1)

Book 2:Shows the armies gearing for war. The first half tells of a dream Zeus sends predicting early victory. The second half of the chapter is a catalog of the troops. I recommend reading the first half including the introduction of the troop catalog, which explains that the Muses were conceived as actual sources of information.(2)

Interestingly enough this chapter shows the bias of the poet toward the aristocrats. Note that only men of the warrior class are listed along with a brief family history. The ordinary soldier did not count. The only common man to appear by name in the Iliad appears in this chapter. He is Thersites. He opposes the war and is promptly beaten and scapegoated. Malcolm Wilcock in A Companion to the Iliad points out that he is the only man in the Iliad described as ugly. The Greeks enjoyed listening to these catalogs of men and ships as they seem to have had some real historical value. It was an honor to be able to trace one’s heritage to one of the noble warriors.

Book 3:This book introduces Paris (Alexandros) who has provoked the war, Helen, and Menalaos, Helen’s first husband and Agamemnon’s brother, and the people of Troy. For the first time we get a glimmer of the reason the Greeks and Trojans are fighting.(3)

Book 6:In book 4 the Trojans with divine help break the truce and for the rest of books 4 and 5 the battles continue with the Greeks carrying the day. Book 6 is a personal favorite because it includes one of the more humane scenes, a meeting between Hector and his wife, Andromache. Additionally, the plight of the women (Helen, Hekabe [Hector’s mother], and Andromache), which is calamitous, is clearly delineated. In this chapter also Hector shames Paris into returning to battle.(4)

Book 9: In books 7 and 8 the battles continue. The Greeks have fortified their position and both armies take time to bury their dead. In book 8 Zeus turns the tide of battle towards Troy. Book 9 presents the Greeks sending three envoys’ Odysseus, Phoinix and Aias’ to plead with Achilles to help them after their terrible defeat. Achilles refuses their offer and says he will not fight unless the Greeks attack his ships.(5)

Book 11:Book 10 shows Agamemnon and Menalaos passing into the Trojan camp to spy. They find a Trojan spy and obtain information about the Trojan positions. In book 11 the major Greek heroes are wounded and Patroclus’  heart is moved to enter the war.(6)

Book 16: The battle continues in books 12 through 15. The Trojans are first victorious, then because Zeus, who is fulfilling his promise to Thetis is tricked, the Greeks rally. Finally Zeus regains control and Troy breaks through to the Greek ships. In book 16 Patroclus, Achilles’ closest companion, pleads with Achilles who is still angry, but who allows Patroclus to enter the fray. Patroclus is killed.(7)

Book 18:The Greeks fight for and finally retrieve the body of Patroclus in book 17. In book 18, Achilles learns of his friend’s death and the army mourns Patroclus. At the end of the book a special shield is made for Achilles.(8)

Book 19:Achilles makes peace with Agamemnon and will join the fight. Achilles: own death is forecast. The tide of battle turns toward the Greeks.(9)

Book 22:Books 20 and 21 show the turnabout once Achilles has joined the battle. The Greeks come up to the very walls of Troy. Book 22 is the climax of the story. Hector and Achilles meet and Hector is slain. Achilles drags the body around Troy and the Trojans display their grief.(10)

Book 24:Book 23 contains the funeral rites of Patroclus and also the funeral games. In book 24 Priam, King of Troy, comes to ransom his son’s, Hector’s, body, and Achilles is finally able to assuage his anger in a touching scene between the two men. Achilles agrees to return Hector’s body to Troy.(11)

Activity 2:  Class Set-Up

  1. Review the character  list from Sparknotes. Each student is assigned a character which he or she will design  a symbol or choose an  artifact according to the information s/he can obtain about them. You will wear the symbol. or bring th artifact to class each day when we study the epic. Many of the characters have epithets, for example ox-eyed Hera, or Athena with the grey eyes, or Thetis, silvery-footed daughter of the Old One of the Sea, running shoes for Achilles. Each student’s job would be to keep track of his character and present a weekly report on his character or characters
  2. Divide the classroom into four groups: Greeks, Trojans, gods who support the Greeks and gods who support Troy.

End of the Lesson Assessment; Write one or two  complex sentences to sum up what you learned today in class.

Homework: Read and annotate the 1st two pages of Preface by Alexander Pope. Create a dialectical journal in which you carefully select 5 quotations you want to interpret and respond to.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will predict the cause of conflict as well as its consequence by examining the exposition of the epic.

Aim: What is the exposition of the epic? How does it help readers predict what the epic is about?

Textbook: The Iliad of Homer, tr. by Alexander Pope


  1. Begin first reading of text: class reads together the 1st two stanzas.
  2. Brief discussion about meaning of poem. What is the poem to be about? Who are the Acheans? Zeus? Agamemnon?
  3. Students in small groups continue reading  the poem in rotation and discuss the meaning. Create 5 questions based on the assigned reading and discuss the answer to each question.

Mini Lesson

Notes and Questions, Book 1

  1. Chryses is the priest of Apollo. His daughter, named Chryseis, has been taken as a prize of war by Agamemnon, leader of the Greek forces. The father and daughter are from a city named Chryse.
  2. Achilles, in tears It was OK for real men to cry in Archaic Greece. Thetis, Achilles’ mom, comes out of the sea because she’s a sea-nymph (minor goddess).
  3. Vase Painting: Agamemnon taking Briseis (note the herald on the right—how does this scene differ from the one described in the Iliad?)
  4. Who is  Atrides” Latona’s son?
  5. According to the first 8 lines, what does the poem foreshadow?  What kind of mood is created in the beginning of the poem? What literary techniques help achieve such an effect?
  6. What do you think the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles is about? Compare / contrast to the “quarrel” that started the war. Do gods or men or both cause the quarrel?
  7. Notice that the epic translated by Pope is written in heroic couplets: Heroic couplets are rhyming pairs of verse in iambic pentameter.

Achilles’ wrath, to Greece the direful spring
Of woes unnumber’d, heavenly goddess, sing!
That wrath which hurl’d to Pluto’s gloomy reign
The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain;
Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore,
Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore.
Since great Achilles and Atrides strove,
Such was the sovereign doom, and such the will of Jove!
Declare, O Muse! in what ill-fated hour
Sprung the fierce strife, from what offended power
Latona’s son a dire contagion spread,
And heap’d the camp with mountains of the dead;
The king of men his reverent priest defied,
And for the king’s offence the people died.

Student Independent Practice in a Small Group

Each small group will closely  read the assigned section of the poem ( two stanzas) and do the following-

  1. What is the event described in the section? How is it describe? What is the tone revealed?
  2. Look characters’ names you are not familiar with and make note of them.
  3. How is the character described? What’s the Homer’s attitude toward the character?
  4. Create 3 open-ended questions and provide answer to each of them.

The following questions are based on Book 1. Pick out the questions that are relevant to your section and respond-

  1. What do you think of Apollo’s murderous response to Chryses’ prayer? What do you think of Zeus’s response  to Thetis’ request?
  2. What accusations do Achilles and Agamemnon level at each other? Do you think these charges are just?
  3. Who do you think is in the right in this quarrel? Who do the Achaeans think is in the right? Why? Why do you think Achilles and Agamemnon fail to take Nestor’s advice?
  4. What kind of people do you think Agamemnon and Achilles are?
  5. How do you think Achilles “decides” to refrain from killing Agamemnon ? Why does Achilles give up Briseis ? What do you think of Achilles’ refusal to fight?
  6. In what senses is Agamemnon more powerful than Achilles?
  7. How do men get gods to do what men want?
  8. Name some similarities between Zeus and Achilles (and Zeus and Agamemnon).
  9. How do you react to the way women (mortal and immortal) portrayed in Book 1?
  10. What do you think the heroes in the Iliad are fighting for? Do the heroes seem to like fighting? What do the gods seem to care about? How are their concerns like / unlike the heroes’ concern for honor and glory?
  11. How do you know who has the most honor? Why do you think Zeus honors Thetis’ request ? What do you think of Zeus’ response to her?
  12. In what ways do you think the men’s and gods’ quarrels are like / unlike? Why do you think these quarrels have different outcomes?
Group 1:
  1. What does Chryses want from Agamemnon?
  2. How does Chryses beg for his daughter to be released? Make a claim.
  3. Find textual evidence to show  the tone in the passage.
  4. How does this passage reveal a larger issue or themes in the poem?
 For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain
His captive daughter from the victor’s chain.
Suppliant the venerable father stands;
Apollo’s awful ensigns grace his hands
By these he begs; and lowly bending down,
Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown
He sued to all, but chief implored for grace
The brother-kings, of Atreus’ royal race46
“Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown’d,
And Troy’s proud walls lie level with the ground.
May Jove restore you when your toils are o’er
Safe to the pleasures of your native shore.
But, oh! relieve a wretched parent’s pain,
And give Chryseis to these arms again;
If mercy fail, yet let my presents move,
And dread avenging Phoebus, son of Jove.”
Group 2:
  1. How is Agamemnon described?
  2. What kind of attitude or tune is revealed toward Agamemnon? Find evidence to support your claim.
  3. How does the passage connect a larger theme?
 The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare,
The priest to reverence, and release the fair.
Not so Atrides; he, with kingly pride,
Repulsed the sacred sire, and thus replied:
“Hence on thy life, and fly these hostile plains,
Nor ask, presumptuous, what the king detains
Hence, with thy laurel crown, and golden rod,
Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god.
Mine is thy daughter, priest, and shall remain;

And prayers, and tears, and bribes, shall plead in vain;
Till time shall rifle every youthful grace,
And age dismiss her from my cold embrace,
In daily labours of the loom employ’d,
Or doom’d to deck the bed she once enjoy’d
Hence then; to Argos shall the maid retire,
Far from her native soil and weeping sire.”
  1. How is Chryses described after being rejected?
  2. What does he decide to do?
  3. How does his attitude reveal Agamemnon’s character?
  4. What’s the tone? Use evidence to support your claim.
 The trembling priest along the shore return’d,
And in the anguish of a father mourn’d.
Disconsolate, not daring to complain,
Silent he wander’d by the sounding main;
Till, safe at distance, to his god he prays,
The god who darts around the world his rays.
“O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona’s line,47
Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine,48
Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores,
And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa’s shores.

If e’er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane,49

Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain;
God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ,
Avenge thy servant, and the Greeks destroy.”
Group 4
  1. What reactions do Chryses’ prayers bring?
  2. How does Apollo punish the city?
  3. What’s tone? Find evidence to support your claim.
 Thus Chryses pray’d.—the favouring power attends,
And from Olympus’ lofty tops descends.
Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound;50
Fierce as he moved, his silver shafts resound.
Breathing revenge, a sudden night he spread,
And gloomy darkness roll’d about his head.
The fleet in view, he twang’d his deadly bow,
And hissing fly the feather’d fates below.
On mules and dogs the infection first began;51
And last, the vengeful arrows fix’d in man.
For nine long nights, through all the dusky air,
The pyres, thick-flaming, shot a dismal glare.
But ere the tenth revolving day was run,
Inspired by Juno, Thetis’ godlike son
Convened to council all the Grecian train;
For much the goddess mourn’d her heroes slain.52
The assembly seated, rising o’er the rest,
Achilles thus the king of men address’d:
Group 5:
  1. What’s Achilles’ suggestion of dealing with the disaster?
  2. What’s his view toward he prophet?
  3. How does Achilles’ attitude toward the prophet reveal his character? Use evidence to support your view.
“Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore,
And measure back the seas we cross’d before?
The plague destroying whom the sword would spare,
‘Tis time to save the few remains of war.
But let some prophet, or some sacred sage,
Explore the cause of great Apollo’s rage;
Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove
By mystic dreams, for dreams descend from Jove.53

If broken vows this heavy curse have laid,

Let altars smoke, and hecatombs be paid.
So Heaven, atoned, shall dying Greece restore,
And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more.”
He said, and sat: when Chalcas thus replied;
Chalcas the wise, the Grecian priest and guide,
That sacred seer, whose comprehensive view,
The past, the present, and the future knew:
Uprising slow, the venerable sage
Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age:
End of the Lesson Assessment: Sum up in three-5 sentences: What’s happening? Who are the main characters? Make a claim about one of them. Prove textual evidence.
Homework: Read from ” “Beloved of Jove, Achilles! would’st thou know

/Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow?” to  ” “Descends Minerva, in her guardian care,

/A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear/ From Atreus’ son?—Then let those eyes that view/ The daring crime, behold the vengeance too.”( below the picture of Minerva).
Group 1: Focus on stanzas 14 , 15 and 16; Group 2: Stanza 17; Group 3: 18; Group 4: 19; Group 5: stanzas 20, 21,22
  1. Select 5 quotations in your dialectical journal and make comment.
  2. Create 3 open-ended questions? Find the answer for each questions.
  3. Create a glossary of new voc for this session and bring to the class.
  4. Your readiness will be your ticket to the group and class participation.
 Lesson 3
Session 1 : Writing
Objectives: Students will evaluate Pope’s attitude toward Homer’s Iliad by identifying the claims he makes as well as the diction he uses.
Aim: What comments does Pope make about Homer’s work? What is Pope’s attitude? How does he reveal his tone?
  1. Go over the lesson objectives and Aim
  2. Do Now
  3. Check homework assignments
  4. Mini Lesson
  5. Student Independent Practice
  6. End of the Lesson Assessment
  7. Assign homework

Do Now: Find one claim statement Pope makes about Homer’s epic. What does it mean? What is its implied tone? Why?

Mini Lesson

Who was  Pope?

  • In the Spring of 1688, Alexander Pope was born an only child to Alexander and Edith Pope.
  • Pope was largely self-educated. He taught himself French, Italian, Latin, and Greek, and read widely, discovering Homer at the age of six.
  • 1712 saw the first appearance of the The Rape of the Lock, Pope’s best-known work and the one that secured his fame.
  • Turning from satire to scholarship, Pope in 1713 began work on his six-volume translation of Homer‘s Iliad.
  • Pope is now considered the dominant poetic voice of his century, a model of prosodic elegance, biting wit, and an enduring, demanding moral force.

As a class, we’ll read the 1st paragraph of the preface and identify claim statements that suggest Pope’s tone and reveal his attitude toward Homer’s work. Pay particular attention to the words in read and bold type.

(P1) Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever(claim). The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him, and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences; but his invention remains yet unrivalled. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets, who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. It is the invention that, in different degrees, distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study, learning, and industry, which masters everything besides, can never attain to this. It furnishes art with all her materials, and without it judgment itself can at best but “steal wisely:” for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment, there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute( syntax) : as in the most regular gardens, art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity, and such a figure, which the common eye may better take in, and is, therefore, more entertained with. And, perhaps, the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one, is, because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art, than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature( antithesis).

A sample analysis by the teacher-

Based on the the extremely praiseworthy diction Pope uses throughout the paragraph,  such as “particular excellence” “unrivaled”, “great”, he regards Homer as fountain of poetry, the muse for many great writers who later based their great work on his imaginary work. Pope considers Homer’s work as ” invention” because they were original. The story Homer created ” furnishes” all other arts with his materials, indicating later Greek and Roman drama as well as paintings and sculpture etc. Pope also uses syntax of double negatives, “ not even a single beauty” the invention must “not contribute” to suggest all encompassing nature f his work. Almost no artist or writer escapes Homer’s influence. Pope gives his ultimate compliment to Homer’s work by comparing his work to nature, proving bountiful resources for everything else to live and thrive.

Teacher Guided Practice:

Identify a claim statement that suggests Pope’s tone and reveals his attitude toward Homer’s work.

(P2) Our author’s work is a wild paradise , where, if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden, it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. It is like a copious nursery, which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind, out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants, each according to his fancy, to cultivate and beautify. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil; and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity, it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature.

 Student Independent Practice:

In a group of 3-4, students will review the assigned passage on  the 1st two pages and do the  following-

  1. Identify claim statement
  2. Find textual evidence that can help you determine Pope’s tone and his attitude toward Homer’s work.

Group 1: Assigned reading- paragraphs 3 &4

Group 2: Assigned reading- paragraphs 5, 6, & 7

Group 3: Assigned reading- paragraph 8

Share your group responses with the class.  Take notes while  listening to each group’s presentation.

End of the Lesson Assessment: Collect each group’s response to assess students’ understanding of the text.

Homework: Read and annotate Pope’s Preface to Iliad ( pages 3-4).
Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will examine the character of Agamemnon and Achilles respectively as well as Greek Gods’ and goddess’ role in human affairs by identifying the cause, effect of and solution to the conflict as described in the beginning scene of Book 1.

Aim: How does Homer portray the character of Agamemnon and Achilles respectively through conflict and their emotional reactions to the conflict?


  • The Iliad by Homer tr. Alexander Pope
  • A hard copy of the character list with detailed descriptions

Lesson Resources:

Difficult Vocabulary Character Name Tag
  1. Invidious: action to incur resentment
  2. Augur: omen
  3. Proffer: offer
  4. Public weal: public happiness
  5. Avarice: extreme greed
  6. Ilion: Troy
  7. Bark: ship
  8. Waft: v. pass easily
  9. Depute: delegate v.
  10. Propitiate: v. win or regain the favor of
  11. Assuage: lessen v.
  12. Inglorious: causing shame or a loss of honor adj.
  13. Vale: stream
  14. Courser: horse
  15. Thessalia: Greece, Aeolia; , which lies betweenMount Oeta/Othrys and Mount Olympus, is the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians.
  16. myrmidon :a member of a legendary Thessalian people who accompanied their king Achilles in the Trojan War
  17. implore: beg


  1. Achilles–  The son of the military man Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis. The most powerful warrior in The Iliad, Achilles commands the Myrmidons, soldiers from his homeland of Phthia in Greece
  2. Agamemnon (also called “Atrides”) –  King of Mycenae and leader of the Achaean army; brother of King Menelaus of Sparta.
  3. Patroclus–  Achilles’ beloved friend, companion, and advisor, Patroclus grew up alongside the great warrior in Phthia,
  4. Odysseus–  A fine warrior and the cleverest of the Achaean commanders. Along with Nestor, Odysseus is one of the Achaeans’ two best public speakers.
  5. Great Ajax–  An Achaean commander, Great Ajax (sometimes called “Telamonian Ajax” or simply “Ajax”) is the second mightiest Achaean warrior after Achilles
  6. Nestor–  King of Pylos and the oldest Achaean commander. Although age has taken much of Nestor’s physical strength, it has left him with great wisdom. He often acts as an advisor to the military commanders, especially Agamemnon
  7. Menelaus–  King of Sparta; the younger brother of Agamemnon. While it is the abduction of his wife, Helen, by the Trojan prince Paris that sparks the Trojan War,
  8. Calchas–  An important soothsayer. Calchas’s identification of the cause of the plague ravaging the Achaean army in Book 1 leads inadvertently to the rift between Agamemnon and Achilles that occupies the first nineteen books of The Iliad.
  9. The Myrmidons–  The soldiers under Achilles’ command, hailing from Achilles’ homeland, Phthia.
  10. Thetis–  A sea-nymph and the devoted mother of Achilles, Thetis gets Zeus to help the Trojans and punish the Achaeans at the request of her angry son. When Achilles finally rejoins the battle, she commissions Hephaestus to design him a new suit of armor.
  11. Apollo–  A son of Zeus and twin brother of the goddess Artemis, Apollo is god of the sun and the arts, particularly music. He supports the Trojans and often intervenes in the war on their behalf.


  1. Review the lesson Objectives and Aim
  2. Provide a brief summary of the lesson agenda
  3. Do Now
  4. Mini Lesson
  5. Student Independent practice in a small group
  6. Lesson Assessment: group presentation
  7. Homework Assignment

Do Now: In a group of 4 or 5, share your responses to the assigned reading. You will present tot he class after 5 minutes of discussion among each other. When presenting, be sure to mention- (5+10)

  • Who is the speaker of your passage?
  • What is the event? Describe succinctly.
  • What does this passage invite the reader to think? ( honor, war, power, love, greed, sacrifice, etc)
  • What’s suggested in the event? How?
  • How does the scene connect to a larger theme?
Group 1:
  1. What does Chryses want from Agamemnon?
  2. How does Chryses beg for his daughter to be released? Make a claim and use evidence to support it.
  3. What is the dominating tone? How is it revealed?
  4. How does this passage connect a larger issue or theme in the poem?
Group 2:
  1. How is Agamemnon described? What kind of man or commander is he?
  2. What kind of attitude or tune is revealed toward Agamemnon? Find evidence to support your claim.
  3. How does the passage connect a larger theme?
  1. How is Chryses described after being rejected?
  2. What does he decide to do?
  3. How does his attitude reveal Agamemnon’s character?
  4. What’s the tone? Use evidence to support your claim.

Group 4

  1. What reactions do Chryses’ prayers bring?
  2. How does Apollo punish the city?
  3. What’s tone? Find evidence to support your claim.
Group 5:
  1. What’s Achilles’ suggestion of dealing with the disaster?
  2. What’s his view toward he prophet?
  3. How does Achilles’ attitude toward the prophet reveal his character? Use evidence to support your view.

Question for a quick assessment: (4 min)

What impression do we have at this moment about Achilles, Agamemnon, and the conflict between them? What accusations do Achilles and Agamemnon level at each other? Do you think these charges are just?

Mini Lesson (7 min)

How do we identify an author or narrator’s tone or attitude toward a character? (5)

Tone is determined by the following elements-

  1. Diction
  2. Detail
  3. imagery
  4. syntax

We will read the passage below and see how we can practice using diction, detail, imagery and syntax to identify the tone.

(Chalcas)Beloved of Jove, Achilles! would’st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow?First give thy faith, and plight a prince’s word Of sure protection, by thy power and sword:For I must speak what wisdom would conceal,And truths, invidious to the great, reveal,Bold is the task, when subjects, grown too wise,Instruct a monarch where his error lies;For though we deem the short-lived fury past,’Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last.” Q1: How does the speaker Chalcas view Achilles? Agamemnon? Who has more honor?  What’s his tone? why?To whom Pelides( Achilles):—”From thy inmost soulSpeak what thou know’st, and speak without control.E’en by that god I swear who rules the day,To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey.And whose bless’d oracles thy lips declare;Long as Achilles breathes this vital air,No daring Greek, of all the numerous band,Against his priest shall lift an impious hand;Not e’en the chief by whom our hosts are led,The king of kings, shall touch that sacred head.” Q2: How does the speaker Achilles view Chalcas? What’s his tone? How and why? How does the tone help portray Achilles’ character?Encouraged thus, the blameless man( Chalcas) replies:”Nor vows unpaid, nor slighted sacrifice,But he, our chief, provoked the raging pest,Apollo’s vengeance for his injured priest.Nor will the god’s awaken’d fury cease,But plagues shall spread, and funeral fires increase,Till the great king, without a ransom paid,To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid.54Perhaps, with added sacrifice and prayer,The priest may pardon, and the god may spare.”Q3: How does the prophet describe the situation? What’s his tone? How and why?

Student Independent Practice

Students will get into pre-assigned collaborative learning groups of 4-5. Each group will be reading together a specific passage. While  reading, they will circle specific examples of diction, details and imagery or syntax. After, they will share the details they have highlighted and circled. They then will respond to the specific questions assigned for each group in writing that will be collected as the Exit Slip.

Group 1: Stanzas 14, 15 & 16

Questions to respond:

  1. How is Agamemnon portrayed?
  2. How does he speak to the prophet? Compare Achilles’ treatment of the prophet with Agamemnon’s . How do their different attitudes toward the prophet reveal their different character? How has more honor?
  3. How does Achilles describe Agamemnon? Is he just? Why? Use textual evidence.
  4. Through the dialogue between Agamemnon and Achilles, how is conflict portrayed?
  5. Make a claim: What is the cause of the conflict? Be sure to use evidence.

Group 2: Stanza 17

Questions to respond:

  1. What does Agamemnon claim to be a fair solution to the conflict? Make a claim and use evidence to support it.
  2. How does this reveal his avaricious character?

Group 3: Stanza 18

Questions to respond:

  1. What’s Achilles’ view of Agamemnon? What are his grievances against Agamemnon?
  2. What has he decided to do to retaliate against Agamemnon’s decision?
  3. Is Achilles’ view of Agamemnon justified? Why or why not? Take a position and argue for it.
  4. Be sure to support your claim with evidence.

Group 4: Stanza 19

Questions to respond:

  1. How does Agamemnon react to Achilles’ threat?
  2. How would you describe Agamemnon’s attitude toward Achilles? Make a claim and support it with evidence.

Group 5: Stanzas 20, 21& 22

Questions to respond:

  1. How is Achilles’s reactions portrayed after he was insulted by Agamemnon?
  2. Who comes to help? What’s her advice?
  3. How does this Godly intervention connect to a larger theme? Make a claim and support it with evidence.

End of the Lesson Assessment:

  1. Group present their responses to the assigned passage
  2. Teacher will collect the written responses if time runs out.

Exist Slip: Collect all the written responses to assess student understanding.

Homework: Finish reading Book 1. Be sure to annotate.

Lesson 4

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will continue analyzing Pope’s claims about Homer’s epics by examining his diction, details and syntax.

Aim; How does Pope compare Homer with other great writers such as Virgil?

Do Now:

1.Share your responses to the reading passages in your small groups.

2. Take one quotation from your reading and share in pairs. Create one question based on your reading and share it with the class.

Mini Lesson:

We will read the following paragraph together and identify the claim as well as the evidence Pope uses to support his claim.

Fable may be divided into the probable, the allegorical, and the marvelous. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as, though they did not happen, yet might, in the common course of nature; or of such as, though they did, became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem, “The return of Ulysses, the settlement of the Trojans in Italy,” or the like. That of the Iliad is the “anger of Achilles,” the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events, and crowded with a greater number of councils, speeches, battles, and episodes of all kinds, than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. The action is hurried on with the most ( superlative diction) vehement spirit, and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. //Virgil, for want of so warm a genius, aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject, as well as a greater length of time, and contracting the design of both Homer’s poems into one, which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. The other epic poets have used the same practice, but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables, destroy the unity of action, and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention, but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army, they all draw up their forces in the same order. If he has funeral games for Patroclus, Virgil has the same for Anchises, and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus.( imitation) If Ulysses visit the shades, the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso, so is Æneas by Dido, and Rinaldo by Armida. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem, Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour, Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer, but, where he had not led the way, supplied the want from other Greek authors. Thus the story of Sinon, and the taking of Troy, was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander, as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius, and several others in the same manner.

What is Pope’s claim? supporting evidence? what kind of literary technique have you discerned?

Independent Practice:

In a small group, read and analyze paragraph 10 by following the similar steps we used for the group reading.

Homework: Reread paragraphs 11, 12 and 13. and pick one paragraph to do a close reading and analysis.

Session 2 Reading ( We’ll finish Lesson 3 Reading lesson)

Lesson 5

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will  analyze how the use of literary techniques such as extended metaphor, personification and diction of  superlative adjectives helps convince the reader that Homer is still the best poet after thousands of years by reading closely paragraphs 5, 6 and 13.

Aim: Why is Homer still the master of literary contents, forms and techniques?

Do Now: Respond:

  1. Homer makes us hearers, and Virgil leaves us readers. ( page 4, para 11)
  2. …the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of this thoughts. (Pg 4, para 12)

Mini Lesson

How does Pope use specific literary techniques to enhance his views about Homer’s work?

( 5) I shall here endeavor to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors.

(6)This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star, which, in the violence of its course, drew all things within its vortex. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts, and the whole compass of nature, to supply his maxims and reflections; all the inward passions and affections of mankind, to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in, he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination, and created a world for himself in the invention of fable. That which Aristotle calls “the soul of poetry,” was first breathed into it by Homer, I shall begin with considering him in his part, as it is naturally the first; and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem, and as it is taken for fiction.

…(13) If we observe his descriptions, images, and similes, we shall find the invention still predominant. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort, where we see each circumstance of art, and individual of nature, summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things, in their various views presented themselves in an instant, and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay, he not only gives us the full prospects of things, but several unexpected peculiarities and side views, unobserved by any painter but Homer. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles, which take up no less than half the Iliad, and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents, that no one bears a likeness to another; such different kinds of deaths, that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner, and such a profusion of noble ideas, that every battle rises above the last in greatness, horror, and confusion. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet, though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him; and it is evident of Virgil especially, that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master.

 Independent Practice

Read the following paragraphs. What kind of writing strategy does Pope use to make his point? How effective is it? Why?

Group 1-Para 14( page 4)

If we descend from hence to the expression, we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction; the first who taught that “language of the gods” to men. His expression is like[pg xxxvi] the colouring of some great masters, which discovers itself to be laid on boldly, and executed with rapidity. It is, indeed, the strongest and most glowing imaginable, and touched with the greatest spirit. Aristotle had reason to say, he was the only poet who had found out “living words;” there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever. An arrow is “impatient” to be on the wing, a weapon “thirsts” to drink the blood of an enemy, and the like, yet his expression is never too big for the sense, but justly great in proportion to it. It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction, which rises with it, and forms itself about it, for in the same degree that a thought is warmer, an expression will be brighter, as that is more strong, this will become more perspicuous; like glass in the furnace, which grows to a greater magnitude, and refines to a greater clearness, only as the breath within is more powerful, and the heat more intense

Group 2-(15)To throw his language more out of prose, Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry, not only as it heightened the diction, but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp, and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention, since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. We see the motion of Hector’s plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos, the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos, and so of others, which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. As a metaphor is a short simile, one of these epithets is a short description.

Group 3 Para. 16 (page 5)

Lastly, if we consider his versification, we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also. He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece, but searched through its different dialects with this particular view, to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants, and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength. What he most affected was the Ionic, which has a peculiar sweetness, from its never using contractions, and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables, so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. With this he mingled the Attic contractions, the broader Doric, and the feebler Æolic, which often rejects its aspirate, or takes off its accent, and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. Thus his measures, instead of being fetters to his sense, were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture, and even to give a further representation of his notions, in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head, but the finest ear in the world. This is so great a truth, that whoever will but[pg xxxvii] consult the tune of his verses, even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas), will find more sweetness, variety, and majesty of sound, than in any other language of poetry. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself, though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words, and the turn and cadence of its verse, which agree with the genius of no other language. Virgil was very sensible of this, and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of, and, in particular, never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman, the only reason is, that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author’s beauties in this kind, in his treatise of the Composition of Words. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers, that they flow with so much ease, as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated, and, at the same time, with so much force and inspiriting vigour, that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. They roll along as a plentiful river, always in motion, and always full; while we are borne away by a tide of verse, the most rapid, and yet the most smooth imaginable.


1. Write a paragraph to analyze the assigned passage. Be sure to include a claim and supporting evidence. Identify one specific literary technique or rhetorical devices such as antithesis, zeugma or chiasmas ( , syntax (parallelism, punctuation marks), and discuss how it contributes to meaning.

2. Read and annotate pages 5 & 6.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will analyze the ” peculiarities” in the portrayal of Achilles and Agamemnon by examining the diction and tone in Book I, Iliad.

Aim: How is each character portrayed in Book I “singularly his own”?

Text; page s 3-17

Do Now: Turn to a partner and share the  specific stanza you have closely read.

Mini Lesson:

How is Chalcas portrayed? How is Achilles portrayed in his conversation with the priest? Agamemnon?

He ( Achilles) said, and sat: when Chalcas thus replied;
Chalcas the wise, the Grecian priest and guide,
That sacred seer, whose comprehensive view,
The past, the present, and the future knew:
Uprising slow, the venerable sage
Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age:
“Beloved of Jove, Achilles! would’st thou know
Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow?
First give thy faith, and plight a prince’s word
Of sure protection, by thy power and sword:
For I must speak what wisdom would conceal,
And truths, invidious to the great, reveal,
Bold is the task, when subjects, grown too wise,
Instruct a monarch where his error lies;
For though we deem the short-lived fury past,
‘Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last.”
To whom Pelides:—”From thy inmost soul
Speak what thou know’st, and speak without control.
E’en by that god I swear who rules the day,
To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey.
And whose bless’d oracles thy lips declare;
Long as Achilles breathes this vital air,
No daring Greek, of all the numerous band,
Against his priest shall lift an impious hand;
Not e’en the chief by whom our hosts are led,
The king of kings, shall touch that sacred head.”
Encouraged thus, the blameless man replies:
“Nor vows unpaid, nor slighted sacrifice,
But he, our chief, provoked the raging pest,
Apollo’s vengeance for his injured priest.
Nor will the god’s awaken’d fury cease,
But plagues shall spread, and funeral fires increase,
Till the great king, without a ransom paid,
To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid.54
Perhaps, with added sacrifice and prayer,
The priest may pardon, and the god may spare.”
The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown
The monarch started from his shining throne;
Black choler fill’d his breast that boil’d with ire,
And from his eye-balls flash’d the living fire:
“Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still,
Prophet of plagues, for ever boding ill!
Still must that tongue some wounding message bring,
And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king?
For this are Phoebus’ oracles explored,
To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord?
For this with falsehood is my honour stain’d,
Is heaven offended, and a priest profaned;
Because my prize, my beauteous maid, I hold,
And heavenly charms prefer to proffer’d gold?
A maid, unmatch’d in manners as in face,
Skill’d in each art, and crown’d with every grace;
Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra’s charms,
When first her blooming beauties bless’d my arms.
(shift)Yet, if the gods demand her, let her sail;
Our cares are only for the public weal:
Let me be deem’d the hateful cause of all,
And suffer, rather than my people fall.
The prize, the beauteous prize, I will resign,
So dearly valued, and so justly mine.
But since for common good I yield the fair,
My private loss let grateful Greece repair;
Nor unrewarded let your prince complain,
That he alone has fought and bled in vain.”
“Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies),
Fond of the power, but fonder of the prize!
Would’st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield,
The due reward of many a well-fought field?
The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain,
We share with justice, as with toil we gain;
But to resume whate’er thy avarice craves
(That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves.
Yet if our chief for plunder only fight,
The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite,
Whene’er, by Jove’s decree, our conquering powers
Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers.”
Then thus the king: “Shall I my prize resign
With tame content, and thou possess’d of thine?
Great as thou art, and like a god in fight,
Think not to rob me of a soldier’s right.
At thy demand shall I restore the maid?
First let the just equivalent be paid;
Such as a king might ask; and let it be
A treasure worthy her, and worthy me.
Or grant me this, or with a monarch’s claim
This hand shall seize some other captive dame.
The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign;
Ulysses’ spoils, or even thy own, be mine.
The man who suffers, loudly may complain;
And rage he may, but he shall rage in vain.
But this when time requires.—It now remains
We launch a bark to plough the watery plains,

And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa’s shores,

With chosen pilots, and with labouring oars.
Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend,
And some deputed prince the charge attend:
This Creta’s king, or Ajax shall fulfil,
Or wise Ulysses see perform’d our will;
Or, if our royal pleasure shall ordain,
Achilles’ self conduct her o’er the main;
Let fierce Achilles, dreadful in his rage,
The god propitiate, and the pest assuage.”
Independent Practice:
Pick out your favorite lines and share with your group members. Explain why.
  1. Reading-Finish reading Book 1( annotate). Read and annotate Book 3.
  2. Writing#1: Pick a claim that Pope makes about Homer’s work( character, plot, details, diction etc.) from Poe’s Preface. Use specific details from Book I or Book 3 to support or argue against his claim. Be sure to analyze your evidence.
  3. Reading Project: The purpose of the project is to analyze a specific character through analyzing his speech. You will follow several steps before you write the analysis paragraph. Here are the step to follow-
    • Select a speech from Book 1 or 3 . Copy and paste in onto a poster paper ( centered).
    • Highlight the words or phrases that stand out to you or give you a visual.
    • Find pictures or images from newspaper or magazine or your own drawing to illustrate the visuals suggested by the words or phrases.
    • Examine the visuals and see how they connect.
    • What do the visual seem to say? What do they connote? Why?
    • Make an interpretive leap based on the connections you can establish with the visuals.
    • Write a full and well-organized paragraph to analyse how the speech illustrates the complexity of the character.

Lesson 6

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will grasp the complexity of Pope’s comments on Homer as  the poet who knows the ” language of the gods” by examining the syntax of his preface on pages 5-6.

Aim: How does Pope use syntax to convince the reader that Homer is the poet who has taught us all the ” language of the gods”?


  1. More about rhetorical devices
  2. Epithet
  3. Appositive

Do Now: Select one sentence with complex syntax  from your reading and turn to your partner and share. Explain what the sentence may mean and how it conveys Pope’s attitude towards Homer as a poet.

Mini Lesson: Syntax and tone

Read an example of sentence from paragraph 15 on page 5.

  1. what is the main clause?
  2. What are the subordinate clauses?
  3. What are the conjunction words?

It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction, which rises with it, and forms itself about it, for in the same degree that a thought is warmer, an expression will be brighter, as that is more strong, this will become more perspicuous; like glass in the furnace, which grows to a greater magnitude, and refines to a greater clearness, only as the breath within is more powerful, and the heat more intense.”

  •  What does the sentence seem to say?
  • What other rhetorical devices and literary techniques are used in the sentence?
  • How does Pope transform the literary meaning of the sentence to a much deeper level? What’s the connotative meaning?

Teacher-Guided Practice-

We shall read one of the most beautifully written passages in the preface , paragraph 17 together. Pay attention to its diction and syntax and see how they are used seamlessly to convey the authors’ ideas about both of the literary giants’ writing-

Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer, what principally strikes us is his invention. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work; and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other, his manners more lively and strongly marked, his speeches more affecting and transported, his sentiments more warm and sublime, his images and descriptions more full and animated, his expression more raised and daring, and his numbers more rapid and various. I hope, in what has been said of Virgil, with regard to any of these heads, I have no way derogated from his character. Nothing is more absurd or endless, than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them, and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him, and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty; and as Homer has done this in invention, Virgil has in judgment. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment, because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree; or that Virgil wanted invention, because Homer possessed a larger share of it; each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides, and are only said to have less in comparison with one another. Homer was the greater genius, Virgil the better artist. In one we most admire the man, in the other the work. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity; Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty; Homer scatters with a generous profusion;[pg xxxviii] Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence; Homer, like the Nile, pours out his riches with a boundless overflow; Virgil, like a river in its banks, with a gentle and constant stream. When we behold their battles, methinks the two poets resemble the heroes they celebrate. Homer, boundless and resistless as Achilles, bears all before him, and shines more and more as the tumult increases; Virgil, calmly daring, like Æneas, appears undisturbed in the midst of the action; disposes all about him, and conquers with tranquility. And when we look upon their machines, Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors, shaking Olympus, scattering the lightnings, and firing the heavens: Virgil, like the same power in his benevolence, counselling with the gods, laying plans for empires, and regularly ordering his whole creation.

Student Independent Practice-

  1. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself, though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words, and the turn and cadence of its verse, which agree with the genius of no other language. ( para. 16, page 5)
  2.  This is so great a truth, that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses, even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practiced in the case of Italian operas), will find more sweetness, variety, and majesty of sound, than in any other language of poetry. ( para. 16, page 5)
  3. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer, what principally strikes us is his invention. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work; and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other, his manners more lively and strongly marked, his speeches more affecting and transported, his sentiments more warm and sublime, his images and descriptions more full and animated, his expression more raised and daring, and his numbers more rapid and various. I hope, in what has been said of Virgil, with regard to any of these heads, I have no way derogated from his character. ( observe the use of zeugma) (paragraph 17 page 6)

End of the Lesson Assessment: Respond : ” Homer was a greater genius, Virgil the better artist”.

Homework:  Select one specific literary technique or rhetorical device and discuss how Pope uses it to advance one of his specific idea or claim. Be sure to use examples of the device to illustrate your point.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will analyze how meaning is constructed by examining their reading process based on the Reading Project ( based on one of the character’s speech in Book 1 or 3 of The Iliad).

Aim: How is meaning constructed?

Do Now: Share in a small group of 4-5 the reading project. Pay attention to how the deeper meaning is ” discovered”. Pick the best project to share with the class.

Mini Lesson

Writers use diction to convey tone and portray the deep psyche of  characters. When we read Homer’s speeches by various characters, each one of them becomes live and parades around us in his/her look and demeanor and speaks in his/her unique voice.

So far, what are our impressions of Achilles, Agamemnon, Thetis, Jove and Hera?

Let’s examine Jove’s character described on page 18-19 , Book I.

  • Where does he reside?
  • How does he respond to Thetis’ request?
  • How is Jove perceived by other immortals?
  • How does Hera question Jove’s decision and how does Jove respond to her doubt and probing? ( page 19)
  • How doe Jove’s tone reveal his relationship with Hera?
  • What kind of immortal is Jove? Why?

Assessment Question: What is the major writing strategy does Homer use to depict Jove as a ruler of all immortals and mortals?

Student Independent Practice

Students will work in small groups to discuss and analyze each assigned question-

  1. Group 1: How does Achilles feel after Agamemnon announced that he would take his war prize? Use textual evidence to support your claim.( pages 13-14)
  2. Group 2: How does Greece show Phoebus its atonement? You need to describe the hecatomb the Greeks prepared and how the ceremony of sacrifice is conducted. Use textual evidence for your  claim. ( pages 15-16)
  3. Group 3: How does Vulcan resolve the conflict between Jove and Hera? What tactics does he use? How does the episode explain the meaning of ” Vulcan’s art”? Use textual evidence for your claim. ( pages 20)
  4. Group 4:  How is the different relationships between Thetis & Jove  and Hera &  Jove portrayed? Use textual evidence to support your claim.( pages 16-18)

End of the Lesson Assessment: Each group submits the response by email before the end of the day.

Homework: Select a passage that describes either Paris or Menelaus or Hector. The speech can also be the direct speech by one of the three characters. Write a PBFF response. Be sure to follow all the steps.

Lesson 7

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will identify the rhetorical strategies Pope uses to defend Homer’s writing and counter argue against the opposing views by reading closely the passage on page 21.

Aim: How does Pope argue against the negative views of Homer’s Iliad?

Resources: Rhetorical Strategies Handout

Do Now:  Share the analysis of the syntax analysis in pairs and class.

Mini Lesson:

Analysis of Language

  1. Rhetorical strategies (devices) – tools that enable a writer to present ideas to an audience effectively
  2. Stylistic elements – detail, organization, point of view, diction syntax, language, attitude, and tone

What kinds of questions are asked in the analysis essay?

  •  Analyze an author’s view on a specific subject.
  •  Analyze rhetorical devices used by an author to achieve his or her purpose.
  •  Analyze stylistic elements in a passage and their effects.
  •  Analyze the author’s tone and how the author conveys this tone.
  •  Compare and/or contrast two passages with regard to style, purpose, or tone.
  •  Analyze the author’s purpose and how he or she achieves it.
  •  Analyze some of the ways an author re-creates a areal or imagined experience.
  •  Analyze how an author presents him or herself in the passage.
  •  Discuss the intended and/or probable effect of a passage.

Rhetorical Strategy (Devices) examples-

Repetition: the purposeful replication of words or phrases in order to make a point. Example: “It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” Abraham Lincoln.

Simile: an explicit comparison between two things using like or as. Example: “Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.” Carl Sandburg

Metaphor: An implied comparison between two things of unlike nature that yet have something in common. Example: “The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it–and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.” John F. Kennedy

Symbolism: The practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships.

Parallelism: the similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. Example: “It is by logic we prove, but by intuition we discover.” Leonardo da Vinci

Alliteration: the repetition of similar sounds in two or more adjacent words. Example: “She sells sea shells by the seashore.” – Famous American tongue-twister for children
Rhyme: Rhyme is the similarity in sound of the ends of words Example: “For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings, that then I scorn to change my state with kings.” Shakespeare

Irony: use of a word in such a way as to convey a meaning opposite to the literal meaning of the word. Example: “I was simply overjoyed that I had to leave my boyfriend and return to school for final exams.” Student Paper

Varying Sentence Structure and/or Length:
Example: “As I write I want to see the design that my piece will have when the reader sees it in type, and I want that design to have a rhythm and a pace that will invite the…

Independent Practice

Identify the rhetorical devices used in the following passages ( page 7 para. 21 & 22)  and respond how Pope defends Homer and argue against the opposing views.

It is owing to the same vast invention, that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more, than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of additional images, which, however, are so managed as not to overpower the main one. His similes are like pictures, where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original, but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects. The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath, when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind.

If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius, than an excess of it, those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in. Such are his grosser representations of the gods; and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes; but I must here speak  a word of the latter, as it is a point generally carried into extremes, both by the censurers and defenders of Homer. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity, to think with Madame Dacier,  “that those times and manners are so much the more excellent, as they are more contrary to ours.” Who can be so prejudiced in their favor as to magnify the felicity of those ages, when a spirit of revenge and cruelty, joined with the practice of rapine and robbery, reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre; when the greatest princes were put to the sword, and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side, I would not be so delicate as those modern critics, who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity, in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards; princes tending their flocks, and princesses drawing water from the springs. When we read Homer, we ought to reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world; and those who consider him in this light, will double their pleasure in the perusal of him. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more; that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity, and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found, the only true mirror of that ancient world. By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish; and what usually creates their dislike, will become a satisfaction.

Lesson Assessment: Collect student analysis for evaluation.

Homework: Write a complete paragraph based on the paragraphs you have studied in class by identifying one specific rhetorical device and discuss how Pope uses it to develop his ideas.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will describe Paris, Hector, Menelaus and Helen  by observing the diction used and tone created in the speeches made by each character.

Aim: How are characters portrayed through diction, figurative language and tone?

Resources: Lit Glossary

Do now: Share in pairs  the PBFF response you have written based on one of the characters’ speech.

Mini Lesson

Literary techniques-

We’ll read and analyze the speech by Hector in Book 3. How does Hector urge his brother Paris to fight against Menelaus? Consider alliteration, tone, syntax, appositive in paralleled phrases.

As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat,
He thus upbraids him with a generous heat:
“Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!
So fairly form’d, and only to deceive!

Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw’st the light,

Or died at least before thy nuptial rite!
A better fate than vainly thus to boast,
And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host.
Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see
Their fears of danger undeceived in thee!
Thy figure promised with a martial air,
But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair.
In former days, in all thy gallant pride,
When thy tall ships triumphant stemm’d the tide,
When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow,
And crowds stood wondering at the passing show,
Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien,
You met the approaches of the Spartan queen,
Thus from her realm convey’d the beauteous prize,
And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen’s eyes?
This deed, thy foes’ delight, thy own disgrace,
Thy father’s grief, and ruin of thy race;
This deed recalls thee to the proffer’d fight;
Or hast thou injured whom thou dar’st not right?
Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know
Thou keep’st the consort of a braver foe.
Thy graceful form instilling soft desire,
Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre,
Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust,
When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust:
Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Crush the dire author of his country’s woe.”
Student Independent Practice
Q1: How are the Greeks getting ready to attack the Trojans? ( page 1) What is the mood and how is it portrayed?
 Q2: How is Paris portrayed? Why? ( page 2-3)
Q 3: How is Hector portrayed? How is he treated by Agamemnon?( page 3-4)
Q4: What kind of warrior is Menelaus?  How is he depicted?( page 4)
Q4: Describe Helen. How does she feel? Why?( page 4-5)

 Lesson Assessment: Check each group’s response to the assigned question.


A. Find one quotation by one of the characters in Book 3 and explain why this quotation is essential to the understanding to the character as well as the advancement of the plot.

B. Based on your understanding of the characters, select a character and write a speech to describe his or her infliction. You will need to use some direct lines or phrases from the text and incorporate them into your speech. Be sure to use specific diction that is representative of the character and there should be at least one metaphor, one simile,  alliteration ,allusion, metonomy and one striking syntax. Be sure to convey the voice of the character that is truthful to the original epic.

Lesson 8

Session 1 : Writing

Objectives: Students will examine the role of a translator in the process of recreating the masterwork by homer through the use of diction, syntax and figures of speech.

Aim: How does Pope examine a translator’s role in recreating a masterpiece such as Homer’s Iliad?


  1. Syntax Online Workshop
  2. Diction Workshop

Do Now: Visit the resource guide for literary terms and understand the definition for each device. 

Mini Lesson

Read the passage below and identify  one example of a specific diction, syntax and figures of speech respectively.

It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect; which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient, by deviating into the modern manners of expression. If there be sometimes a darkness, there is often a light in antiquity, which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. I know no liberties one ought to take, but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original, and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say, there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile, dull adherence to the letter, than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical, insolent hope of raising and improving their author. It is not to be doubted, that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard, as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however, it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole, without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is, in any particular place. It is a great secret in writing, to know when to be plain, and when poetical and figurative; and it is what Homer will teach us, if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. Where his diction is bold and lofty, let us raise ours as high as we can; but where his is plain and humble, we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime; others sunk into flatness, in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer, some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle), others slowly and servilely creeping in his train, while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. However, of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity; no author is to be envied for such commendations, as he may gain by that character of style, which his friends must agree together to call simplicity, and the rest of the world will call dulness. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity, as well as a bold and sordid one; which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up, and another not to be dressed at all. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity.

Independent Practice:

Group 1: Identify examples of antithetical diction. Make a claim based on the examples. Make sure to explain the connection among the three examples.

Group 2: Identify paralleled sentences. Make a claim based on the examples. Make sure to explain the connection among the three examples.

Group 3: Identify examples of figures of speech such as metaphor, simile, personification and hyperbole, etc. Make a claim based on the examples. Make sure to explain the connection among the three examples.

Lesson Assessment: Each group presents the findings and claim.

Homework: Write a paragraph combining the three devices to make a more specific claim. How does Pope use the literary devices to develop his claim about the role of a translator in the process of recreating a masterpiece such as Homer’s Iliad.

Session 2 : Reading

Objectives: Students will analyze the relationship between Paris and Helen, Priam and Agamemnon  as well as Paris’ character by examining the textual details.

Aim: How does Priam describe the relationship between Troy and Greece before Helen was kidnapped?  How does Paris escape death? How would you describe the relationship between Paris and Helen?

Do Now: How is Helen’s beauty described in the stanza?

In secret own’d resistless beauty’s power:
They cried, “No wonder such celestial charms
For nine long years have set the world in arms;
What winning graces! what majestic mien!
She moves a goddess, and she looks a queen!
Yet hence, O Heaven, convey that fatal face,
And from destruction save the Trojan race.”
Mini Lesson
Identify epithets that are used to describe Agamemnon, Ulysses and Ajax (7-9 book 3)
For example-
…What Greek is he
(Far as from hence these aged orbs can see)
Around whose brow such martial graces shine,
So tall, so awful, and almost divine!
Though some of larger stature tread the green,
None match his grandeur and exalted mien:
He seems a monarch, and his country’s pride.”
Student Independent Practice:
1. Group 1: Describe the libation before the battle by Agamemnon ( 8-9 book 3)
2. Group 2: Describe the battle between Agamemnon and  Paris( 10-11)
3. Group 3: Describe how Paris escapes his death(11)?
4. Group 4: What does Helen say to Venus? What kind of tone is conveyed?
5. Group 5: How does Venus control Helen to stay with Paris? ( 13)
Lesson Assessment: Group presentation of their responses to the assigned question
Homework: In a small group, gather evidence and use specific textual evidence to respond to the assigned question. –
  1. Copy the question on top of a page
  2. Respond to the question in your own words based on your understanding.
  3. Copy specific textual evidence you have used to contribute to your responses.
  4. Analyze the evidence.
  5. So what?
  6. How does the scene relate to a larger theme or idea?

Lesson 9

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will practice the art of refutation by implementing the rhetorical strategies they have learned.

Aim: How do we refute an idea without ” refuting”  the person who presents it?

Do Now: Share your passage analysis in pairs. Present to the class one idea that is well argued.

Lesson Procedure

Mini Lesson

Go to the NYTIMES Debate room and find the debate on Will we be safer if Fewer were jailed . Two or three students in a group will read an assigned article on the issue.

After reading, talk with each other about the writer’s argument-

  1. What’s her/his argument?
  2. How does s/he defend his/her argument?
  3. Which evidence prides strong support for the argument? Or logic?
  4. Is there any rhetorical strategy s/he uses to enhance his/her ideas?
  5. Is there any point you disagree in the argument, which makes you feel you want to refute the point?
  6. Are you convinced by the article? Why or why not?

We will share your observations in class.

Student Independent Practice

  1. Go to the NYTIMES Debate room and in pairs, pick out one topic you are both interested. You will discuss whose side you will take. You will need to have different point of view on the issue ( for the argument sake).
  2. Read the article carefully and identify the point of view on the issue.
  3. identify the evidence used to support the view.
  4. Then identify the rhetorical devices the writer uses to enhance his/her view.
  5. What is the view s/he disagrees with or challenges?
  6. How will you refute the ideas in the opponent’s argument?

Lesson Assessment: Each pair will have a brief conference with the teacher reporting their discussion.

Homework:  Prepare for a debate by doing research or using evidence used by other debtors in the ” debate room”.

Session 2 : Reading

Objectives: Students will demonstrate their in-depth understanding of the main characters in Book 3 of Iliad by presenting their designated group project.

Aim: How does Homer portray each character so vividly?

DO Now: Get ready for the presentation. Ask questions if you have any.


Group presentation

  1. Each group will have up to 7 minutes to present their understanding of the passage.
  2. While listening to each presentation, please take notes. You notes will be collected and graded as the end of the lesson assessment.


Read an assigned passage from Book 4 of Iliad. Be sure to-

  1. understand the what, where , when , who and why
  2. identify at least three important details to share with the group next day. You need to explain why the details are important
  3. Create one multiple choice question that requires close reading ( you need to know the answer) to get the answer

Group 1: Read pages 1-2 ( from “An Now…” to” Not all the gods are partial and unjust”.

Group 2: Read pages 2-3 ( from “The sire whose thunder…to Jove, the great arbiter of peace and wars.”

Group 3: Read pages 3-5 ( They said… to “With answering sighs returned the plaintive sound”.

Group 4: Read pages 5-6 ( from ” Oh dear as life” to “Which Chiron gave, and Esculapius used”.

Group 5: Read pages 6-8 ( from ” While the round prince the Greeks…” to ” And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields”.

Lesson 10

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will use rhetorical strategies to refute a claim .

Aim: Why do you want to refute one of the writer’s claims? 

Resources: About Refutation

Do Now: In pairs, share the claims you disagree with as well as your reasons why. You will persuade each other and come to consensus about one specific claim that you will refute as  a team.

Mini Lesson

1. Terms and strategies for argument:

What is the difference between an counter argument and refutation?

In the case of counter-argument, the writer acknowledges that there is substance in the contradicting argument yet he provides evidence for his alleged stance. On the other had refutation goes a bit further by presenting evidence that in turn negates the opposing arguments.

2. Structure and strategies to refute( the following strategies are cited from

3. Read an argument essay using Rogerian argument.

The Concession/Refutation

The concession/refutation section involves a great deal of what you learned in writing Rogerian arguments( an example of Rogerian argument) .You want to concede any points that you would agree on or that will make your audience more willing to listen to you (as long as they don’t fatally weaken your own side). For instance, you might argue that we need stronger groundwater pollution laws, but concede that we shouldn’t hold cities and municipalities legally liable for cleaning up groundwater that was polluted before the law was passed, if you think that will help sell your case. Again, here is a place to use both pathos and ethos: by conceding those matters of feeling and values that you can agree on, while stressing the character issues, you can create the opportunity for listening and understanding.

But you will also have to refute (that is, counter or out-argue) the points your opposition will make. You can do this in four ways:

  1. Show by the use of facts, reasons, and testimony that the opposing point is totally wrong. You must show that the opposing argument is based on incorrect evidence, questionable assumptions, bad reasoning, prejudice, superstition, or ill will.
  2. Show that the opposition has some merit but is flawed in some way. For instance, the opposing viewpoint may be true only in some circumstances or within a limited sphere of application, or it may only apply to certain people, groups, or conditions. When you point out the exceptions to the opposition rule, you show that its position is not as valid as its proponents claim it is.
  3. Show that the opposition has merits but is outweighed by other considerations. You are claiming, in essence, that truth is relative: when a difficult choice has to be made, we must put first things first. For instance, you may say that it’s undesirable for young girls to have abortions, but when girls as young as ten become pregnant, they’re too young to take on the burdens of motherhood and must not be forced to carry the pregnancy to term. Or you may say that yes, it’s true that my proposal is expensive, but consider the costs if we do not undertake it, or how much the price will go up if we wait to undertake it, etc.
  4. Show that the reasoning used by the opposition is flawed: in other words, that it contains logical fallacies. For instance, the opposition may claim that anyone who does not support a retaliatory bombing of Afghanistan to punish Osama bin Laden and the regime that supports him is not a patriotic American; you can show that this is an example of the “either/or” fallacy by showing that there are other patriotic responses than nuking a Stone Age country further back into the Stone Age—for instance arresting bin Laden and the Taliban leaders and turning them over to the World Court, bringing them to trial in the US justice system, etc.

In general, strategies 2 and 3 are easier to pull off than strategy 1. Showing that a position is sometimes valid gives the opposition a face-saving “out” and preserves some sense of common ground.

Some Questions to Ask as You Develop Your Concession/Refutation

  1. What are the most important opposing arguments? What concessions can I make and still support my thesis adequately?
  2. How can I refute opposing arguments or minimize their significance?
  3. What are the possible objections to my own position?
  4. What are the possible ways someone can misunderstand my own position?
  5. How can I best deal with these objections and misunderstandings?

Independent Practice

Now use all the strategies we have learned and start preparing for your refutation of a specific opposing point. You may use the evidence used by other debators in the Debate Room on the same topic or research for evidence to refute the point.

Homework: Create an outline for your refutation by using one of the four methods introduced above.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will gain in-depth understanding of the assigned passage by sharing with each other the key facts, connotative lines and multiple-choice questions .

Aim: What does the passage reveal and how is the idea developed?

Do Now: Finish the group presentations based Book 3. Notes will be collected as the end of the presentation.

Mini Lesson

Multiple question stems that require thinking and textual evidence-

1. The passage’s primary focus is …
2. The description of the setting invokes a feeling of …
3. The author uses (name a literary device) to do all of the following except … or to …
4. The images in the … paragraph predominantly appeal to the reader’s sense of …
5. The images in the … paragraph predominantly call to mind …
6. The description of the … in paragraph… is best characterized as… (2 adjectives answer)
7. Which of the following contributes LEAST/ MOST to the depiction of … as …
8. The speaker most likely does (name something) in order to suggest….
9. The speaker mentions … for all of the following reasons EXCEPT…
10. The phrase, word, etc. … is BEST interpreted as …
11. The passage implies …
12. Throughout the passage, … is seen as …
13. The speaker makes the most use of …
14. The speaker’s tone is predominantly …
15. Throughout the passage, the imagery suggests …
16. In line, the speaker makes use of (paradox, metaphor, simile) by …
17. The speaker metaphorically likens himself (or something else) to …
18. The central opposition (contrast) in the passage is between?
19. The (device: imagery, metaphor, simile, etc.) in line(s) ____ suggests…
20. Throughout the passage, the speaker expands his ideas chiefly by means of… (what device?
21. The speaker’s attitude toward … is best described as (or is best described as a combination
22. The ___ is primarily portrayed through descriptions of ______
23. The speaker views (some event) as …?
24. The verb phrase in line ____, serves primarily to…
25. The pronoun ___ in line refers to … Or the antecedent of ____ is ____
26. The passage is best described as … (a series of…an exposition…a description…an
argument…an anecdote…an analysis…a reminiscence…etc.)
27. Or come up with one of your own (theme, organization, etc.)

Independent Student Practice

Share in small groups  and create a worksheet( be creative but be sure to based every question on textual evidence) and study guide  to help your fellow classmates to undersand this section. Close reading is what we need not a summary. Every point needs to come from a specific line in your passage.

End of the Lesson Assessment: Each group hands in the study guide and worksheet based on each passage.


Work colloratively in a group to create a study guide and worksheet –

Group1: page 8-9 from ” Oh, heaven… to With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved. (8-9 book 4).

Group 2: From ” Can Peleus’ son forget a warrior’s part… to Gods! how the son degenerates from the sires” ( 9-10 book 4)

Group 3:  From ” No words the godlike Diomed returned… to  And slaughter’s heroes swell the dreadful tide” (10-12 book 4)

Group 4: From ” As torrents roll, increased by numerous rills… to And his broad buckler rings against the ground.”( 12-13 book 4)

Group 5: From ” Seized with arright the boldest foes appear.. to  And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired.” ( 13-14 book 4)

Lesson 11

Session 1 :Writing

Writing an outline for a  paragraph of refutation

  • Describe the Title and author of the article
  • State clearly and precisely the counter claim ( counter argument) in quotation marks
  • List the evidence and reason the author uses to support the claim ( your counter claim)



  • Argue against the evidence used by the author
  • Identify logical fallacies
  • Bring new evidence( from other debtors)  to argue against the the counter claim
  • Use more evidence to bring out your own claim
  • Conclude with a new claim of your own.

Session 2 : Reading

For collaborative group work, follow the procedures-

  1. Send individual work to your group leader by agreed time and te leader will copy and paste all the work in one file called ” group #__ individual work”
  2. Group members agree on organizing the study guide in a certain way or what contents to include ( study guide will guide students to gain information and learn about the passage)
  3. Create a worksheet based on the study guide that will test your peers’ learning
  4. Students who don’t submit individual work will not receive credit for group work

Day 12 :

Session 1 : Writing

Oral Presentation of the Refutation Rehearsal

Final Oral Refutation on March 9th

Topic: Would We Be Safer if Fewer Were Jailed?

The scenario is : NYTIMES Debate Room

Participants: Marc Levin, N. Turner, Scheidegger, Martin,  Fleely

Our refutation is based on a claim made by ____________

Point of View: 2nd person POV – Use “ you” to refer to the author you are refuting; you are also allowed to refer to any other debater in  the debate room

Article: ______________________________ by __________________

( A)Summary:

Use Rogerian argument approach to establish a common ground) before you start the “attack”

(B) Counter Argument ( claim):

(A) Present the evidence Levin uses:

(B) Point out the faults with evidence.

A: Point out a logical fallacy in the claim or the use of evidence

B: Bring out the new evidence

A & B: Bring out the new claim

Homework: Practice your oral presentation

When turning all the work, please include the following-

  1. Individual worksheet
  2. One ( team)outline
  3. 1-2 drafts of the Refutation Paragraph
  4. Final draft for the oral presentation ( roles should be clearly allocated and assigned) – script

 Session 2 : Reading

Quiz on Book 5 of Iliad

Homework: Read the 1st 8 pages of Book V of Iliad translated by Pope.

  • Use two sentences to sum up the section.
  • Identify 5 nouns and 5 verbs and explain why they are important.
  • Identify one quotation from the section and explain what it means and why you have decided to use this quotation for the assignment.

Lesson 13

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will share their different views on the court system by presenting their refutation orally in the “debate room”.

Aim: Will we be safer if Fewer were jailed ?

Do Now: Warm up for the refutation. Put a name tag of each author on the desk for our debators to refer to.


  1. Each team presents within 5 minutes.
  2. The class comments on the presentation for 2 minutes usinghte rubric.

Refutation Rubric

Elements  of Refutation A B C D
Counter claim precise clear Somewhat clear unclear
2nd Point of view Consistent and aware Some consistency and awareness Mechanical use of pov and little awareness No awareness
Context/summary Precise and insightful Appropriate vague none
Rogerian approach Provide clear acknowledgement of a common ground Provide some acknowledgement of a common ground Provide vague acknowledgement of a common ground none
Present the original evidence by the author Precise appropriate relevant irrelevant
Find faults with a specific part of the evidence convincing reasonable awkward none
Point out the logical fallacy Logical and convincing reasonable awkward none
Bring out the new evidence to either argue against the original evidence or bolster your new claim Precise and relevant for counter argument appropriate Some relevancy irrelevant
New Claim Precisely refuting the counter claim Appropriately refuting the counter claim Somewhat refuting the counter claim None

 Homework: Read and annotate page 10 of Pope’s preface.

Session 2: Reading Book 5 of Iliad

Objectives: Students will grasp cruel nature of war by identify imagery, diction, alliteration, metaphor and other literary devices.

Aim: How does Homer portray the cruelty of war?

Text: Book 5 Iliad (

Resources: Study Questions

Do Now:

Based on your reading of the 2nd half of Book 4-

  • how does Agamemnon incite each warrior to fight ( group 1 &2)?
  • how is war depicted as gory and ruthless?( groups 3, 4, 5)

First use your own words to make a claim and then provide textual evidence to support the claim.

Mini Lesson

  • Glossary

Aeneas Trojan warrior, son of Anchises and Aphrodite. In legend, he is the only major Trojan warrior to escape from Troy.

aristeia the greatest battle of a hero. For example, Diomedes’ aristeia occurs in Book V; Achilles’ aristeia ends the Iliad.

brazen made of brass or bronze.

car chariot.

ichor the ethereal fluid flowing instead of blood in the veins of the gods.

Scamander river that flows through the plain on which Troy is located.

  •  How is Dimed or Tydides portrayed as a hero in this stanza, propped by Pallas(Athena)?

But Pallas now Tydides’ soul inspires, 143

Fills with her force, and warms with all her fires,

Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise,

And crown her hero with distinguish’d praise.

High on his helm celestial lightnings play,

His beamy shield emits a living ray;

The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies,

Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies,

When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight,

And, bathed in ocean, shoots a keener light.

Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow’d,

Such, from his arms, the fierce effulgence flow’d:

Onward she drives him, furious to engage,

Where the fight burns, and where the thickest rage.

Independent Practice( Book 5

Each group will generate a claim based on the passage and identify evidence to support it. Point out if there is a specific literary device used in the evidence .

Group 1: Read from “Meantime, the Greeks to His brazen armor rings against the ground”

Group 2: Read from “ Next artful Phereclus …to Closed his dim eyes and fate suppressed his breath”

Group 3”  Read “ Thus toild the ciefs… to “ That vaunts these eyes shall view the laugh no more”.

Group 4: Read from “ They praye’d Tydides… to The race forgotten ad the name no more.”

Group 5: Read from “ To him the Lycian : Whom your eyes hehold… to Broke by my hand, shall feed the blazing flames.”

End of the Lesson Assessment: Organize the notes into a paragraph. We’ll share in the next day’s class.

Homework: Read and annotate pages 8-12 of book 5.

Lesson 14

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will understand the structure of complex sentences by identifying the main clause and subordinate clause.

Aim: How to analyze a complex sentence?

Do Now: Write a complex sentence. Be sure to point out  the main clause .

Mini Lesson

Some sentences are complex. Such sentences have two clauses, one main [or independent] and one subordinate [or dependent].

The essential ingredient in a complex sentence is the subordinate conjunction:(

subordinate Conjunctions
even if
even though
in order that
provided that
rather than
so that

As a class, let’s practice together:

For a further preservation of this air of simplicity, a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. They have something venerable, and as I may say, oracular, in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavoring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is, a more modern) turn in the paraphrase.

Student Independent Practice:

A. There are two peculiarities in Homer’s diction, which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight; those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects, and those who are, seemed pleased with them as beauties. I speak of his compound epithets, and of his repetitions.

B. Upon the whole, it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer, and which, though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times, is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them, where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed; and in doing this properly, a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment.

Homework: Read and annotate page 11 of Pope’s preface.

Session  2: Reading: Review Lesson 12 Reading

Lesson 15

Session 1 : Writing

Objectives: Students will make a claim about what Pope’s thinks is an excellent translation of Homer’s work by comparing his comments on several writers’ translations.

Aim; According to Pope, what factors contribute to doing justice to Homer’s Iliad?

Do Now: Students will share their complex sentences.

Mini Lesson:

How to combine sub claims into a more complete claim statement?

  1. Identify sub claims.
  2. Combine the sentences into a complex claim statement by using a complex sentence structure.

Let’s Practice together-

What’s the claim of each paragraph? How are they related? What is the logical relationship among these claims?

  • It only remains to speak of the versification. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense, and varying it on every new subject. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry, and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek, and Virgil in the Latin. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance, when a writer is warm, and fully possessed of his image: however, it may reasonably be believed they designed this, in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have, will see I have endeavored at this beauty.
  • Upon the whole, I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity, of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. We have only those of Chapman, Hobbes, and Ogilby. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse, notwithstanding which, there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines; and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey, ver. 312, where he has spun twenty verses out of two. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner, that one might think he deviated on purpose, if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author; insomuch as to promise, in his rhyming preface, a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer; and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. His expression is involved in fustian; a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings, as in the tragedy of Bussy d’Amboise, &c. In a word, the nature of the man may account for his whole performance; for he appears, from his preface and remarks, to have been of an arrogant turn, and an enthusiast in poetry. His own boast, of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks, shows with what negligence his version was performed. But that which is to be allowed him, and which very much contributed to cover his defects, is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation, which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion.
  • Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general; but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them, and often omits the most beautiful. As for its being esteemed a close translation, I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it, which proceeds not from his following the original line by line, but from the contractions above mentioned. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences; and is now and then guilty of mistakes, into which no writer of his learning could have fallen, but through carelessness. His poetry, as well as Ogilby’s, is too mean for criticism.
  • It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. He has left us only the first book, and a small part of the sixth; in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense, or preserved the antiquities, it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman, whose words he sometimes copies, and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original. However, had he translated the whole work, I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the commonwealth of letters, they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it.

 End of the Lesson Assessment– Write a paragraph in which you state a claim as to what Pope believes makes a good translation of Homer’s work . identify one specific literary device he uses to develop his ideas.

Homework: Complete the End of the Lesson Assessment.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will gain details about the war by examing the descriptive language Homer uses in the scene.

Aim: How is Aenears wounded? How does he survive his death?

Do Now:  Why does Athena grant Diomedes strength and daring? How does it work in reality? FInd textual evidence for oyour response.

Mini lesson-

War scene-

Read page 9 book 5 starting from ” To guard his slaughter’s freind, Aeneas flies She bears him from the fight.”

How is Aeneas wounded and who saves him? How? Use textual evidence to support your repsonse.

Student Independent Practice-

  1. Why does Diomedes refuse Sthenelus’ suggestion to retreat?
  2. What is so special about Aeneas’ horses?
  3. Why is Diomedes unable to kill Aeneas with the gigantic rock?
  4. Why is Diomedes able to continue fighting even after being hit in the shoulder by Pandarus’ arrow ?
  5. Which goddess does Diomedes wound? What flows in her veins? Why does bloodlessness mean deathlessness?
  6. Who is Aphrodite’s mother, and what does she do for her daughter?
  7. How are the coursers( horses) described in the part of the book?

Homework: Read  and annotate pages 13-19 of Book 5. Identify 5 nouns, verbs and copy the sentences in which they are used.

Lesson 16

Objectives: Students will learn crafts to sharpen a claim by  doing ” Notice & Focus”.

Aim: What can we do to make a claim precise?

Text: Preface to Iliad by Pope

Do Now: Share the revised claim based on Pope’s writing about translating Homer’s epics.

Claim Workshop

A. …But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the commonwealth of letters, they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it.

That which, in my opinion, ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer, is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places, where the sense can bear any doubt, to follow the strongest and most poetical, as most agreeing with that character; to copy him in all the variations of his style, and the different modulations of his numbers; to preserve, in the more active or descriptive parts, a warmth and elevation; in the more sedate or narrative, a plainness and solemnity; in the speeches, a fulness and perspicuity; in the sentences, a shortness and gravity; not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words, nor sometimes the very cast of the periods; neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. What I would further recommend to him is, to study his author rather from his own text, than from any commentaries, how learned soever, or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world; to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients, and with Milton above all the moderns. Next these, the Archbishop of Cambray’s Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author; and Bossu’s admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. But after all, with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed, or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work, he must hope to please but a few; those only who have at once a taste of poetry, and competent learning. For to satisfy such a want either, is not in the nature of this undertaking; since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern, and a pedant nothing that is not Greek.

  • Based ont he highlighted words and phrases, is there any repetition or a binary? What kind of pattern do these words create? What is the relationship between the ideas?
  • How do I combine them into a one sentence?

Student Independent Practice:

What claim does Pope make in the passage? Identify one specific writing strategy Pope uses in the passage to develop his idea. Use the strategies we have workshopped in class to help you derive at a precise claim.

B. What I have done is submitted to the public; from whose opinions I am prepared to learn; though I fear no judges so little as our best poets, who are most sensible of the weight of this task. As for the worst, whatever they shall please to say, they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men, but none as they are malignant writers. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs, and by persons for whom they can have no kindness, if an old observation be true, that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. Mr. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task; who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity. I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. Dr. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. I must also acknowledge, with infinite pleasure, the many friendly offices, as well as sincere criticisms, of Mr. Congreve, who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer. I must add the names of Mr. Rowe, and Dr. Parnell, though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last, whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric), is no less extensive than his learning. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me; while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers, and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find, that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham* was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay), so complete a praise:

“Read Homer once, and you can read no more;
For all books else appear so mean, so poor,
Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read,
And Homer will be all the books you need.”

That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me; of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke, not more distinguished in the great scenes of business, than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning, has not refused to be the critic of these sheets, and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of “Heroic Love” has continued his partiality to me, from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing, that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general, but their correction of several particulars of this translation.

I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon; but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. Mr. Stanhope, the present secretary of state, will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. The particular zeal of Mr. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence; and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence.

In short, I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted. He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival, the University of Oxford. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death, when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations, and easy friendships, which make the satisfaction of life. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged, as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties, or the vanities of particular men. Whatever the success may prove, I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit; and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies, after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others, nor disagreeable to myself.

 *George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, was a prominent courtier in the reigns of Charles II and James II.

 Homework: Write a well-developed paragraph based on the prompt-What claim does Pope make in the passage? Identify one specific writing strategy Pope uses in the passage to develop his idea. Use the strategies we have workshoped in class to help you derive at a precise claim.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will analyze the war scene mixed with men and gods by interpreting key lines nad stanzas in Book 5.

Aim: How are gods mixed with huimans in the Trojan war?

Do Now:  Continue with small group presentations.

Mini Lesson:

Discuss the war scene through imagery and figurative language-

Read page 9 book 5 starting from ” To guard his slaughter’s freind, Aeneas flies She bears him from the fight.”

How is Aeneas wounded and who saves him? How? Use textual evidence to support your repsonse.

Student Independent Practice-

  1. Why does Diomedes refuse Sthenelus’ suggestion to retreat?
  2. What is so special about Aeneas’ horses?
  3. Why is Diomedes unable to kill Aeneas with the gigantic rock?
  4. Why is Diomedes able to continue fighting even after being hit in the shoulder by Pandarus’ arrow ?
  5. Which goddess does Diomedes wound? What flows in her veins? Why does bloodlessness mean deathlessness?
  6. Who is Aphrodite’s mother, and what does she do for her daughter?
  7. How are the coursers( horses) described in the part of the book?

Use key nouns and verbs to assist your Intepretations: 

  • But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed),
    Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed,
    Know thou, whoe’er with heavenly power contends,
    Short is his date, and soon his glory ends;
    From fields of death when late he shall retire,
    No infant on his knees shall call him sire.
    Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found,
    To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground
  • As late she tried with passion to inflame
    The tender bosom of a Grecian dame;
    Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy,
    To quit her country for some youth of Troy;
    The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound,
    Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound.”
  • Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends,
    And the proud vaunt in just derision ends.
    Remote they stand while alien troops engage,
    Like trembling hounds before the lion’s rage.
  • Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten’d state,
    Or one vast burst of all-involving fate
    Full o’er your towers shall fall, and sweep away
    Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish’d prey.
    Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight;
    These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night;
    With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose;
    Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes.”
  • As when, on Ceres’ sacred floor, the swain
    Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain,
    And the light chaff, before the breezes borne,
    Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn;
    The grey dust, rising with collected winds,
    Drives o’er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:
    So white with dust the Grecian host appears.
    From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers;
    The dusky clouds from labour’d earth arise,
    And roll in smoking volumes to the skies.
    Mars hovers o’er them with his sable shield,
    And adds new horrors to the darken’d field:
    Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil,
  • Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire,
    And catch from breast to breast the noble fire!
    On valour’s side the odds of combat lie,
    The brave live glorious, or lamented die;
    The wretch who trembles in the field of fame,
    Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!”
  • The faithful Mydon, as he turn’d from fight
    His flying coursers, sunk to endless night;
    A broken rock by Nestor’s son was thrown:
    His bended arm received the falling stone;
    From his numb’d hand the ivory-studded reins,
    Dropp’d in the dust, are trail’d along the plains:
    Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound;
    He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground:
    Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there
    The head stood fix’d, the quivering legs in air,
    Till trampled flat beneath the coursers’ feet:
    The youthful victor mounts his empty seat,
    And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.
  • Tydides paused amidst his full career;
    Then first the hero’s manly breast knew fear.
    As when some simple swain his cot forsakes,
    And wide through fens an unknown journey takes:
    If chance a swelling brook his passage stay,
    And foam impervious ‘cross the wanderer’s way,
    Confused he stops, a length of country pass’d,
    Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last.
 Homework: Select one passage and interpret its meaning. Read and annotate pages 20-26 of Book 5.
Lesson 17
Session 1: Writing
Objectives: Students will write an essay based on the final section of Pope’s Preface.
Aim: What specific writing strategy does Pope use in this section? How does Pope use it to develop his ideas ( claim)?
Do Now: Share the worksheet on the section. Do a survey about the speech contest- availability from 10 coaching days after school.
Student Independent Practice– Write the essay in class using the notes they have taken during preparation.
Homework: Do research and take some notes on Theodore Roosevelt based on the topics provided( see the Post)  and bring in to the class to share tomorrow.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will continue analyzing how  wars are glorified by examining the diction and tone used in Book 5.

Aim: How are wars glorified?

Resources: Use the translation guide to find meanings of Greek or Tojan names and places(

Text: pages 19-16 Book 5 Iliad

Do Now:  Review lesson 15 and 16.

Mini Lesson:

Analyze the tone on war by examining the diction as well as the imagery in the text:

How does Ulysses view the casualties among the GREEKS?

Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown
Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone
Sarpedon’s thigh, had robb’d the chief of breath;
But Jove was present, and forbade the death.
Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng,
The wounded hero dragg’d the lance along.
(His friends, each busied in his several part,
Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.)
The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired;
Whose fall Ulysses view’d, with fury fired;
Doubtful if Jove’s great son he should pursue,
Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew.
But heaven and fate the first design withstand,
Nor this great death must grace Ulysses’ hand.
Minerva drives him on the Lycian train;
Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew’d the plain,
Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell: 154
And numbers more his sword had sent to hell,
But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight,
Rush’d terrible amidst the ranks of fight.

 How is Hector portrayed in the verse?
The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace,

Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face;
None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight,
Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight.
Who first, who last, by Mars’ and Hector’s hand,
Stretch’d in their blood, lay gasping on the sand?
Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown’d
For managed steeds, and Trechus press’d the ground;,
Next OEnomaus and OEnops’ offspring died;
Oresbius last fell groaning at their side:
Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay,
In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway,
Where lakes surround low Hyle’s watery plain;
A prince and people studious of their gain

Student  Independent Practice
  1. Why and how do Hera and Athena justify their involvement ( persuade Jove to give them permission)  in the war against the Trojans?( pages 21-22)
  2. How does Athena assist Tydides to wound Mars, the god of wars?( pages 23-25)
  3. How does Mars complain to Jove about his injury and how does Jove respond?( pages 25-26)
  4. Why is Book 5 more about war among the gods rather than humans?( the entire book 5)

End of the Lesson Assessment: How is the war glorified in Book 5?

Homework: Write a paragraph responding to the question of “How the war is glorified in Book 5”. Find relevant textual evidence to support your claim ( your answer to the question).

Lesson 18  Book 15 of Iliad translated by Alexander Pope

Objectives: Students will analyze the immortals described in the verse and make a claim about them respectively by examing the textual details used.

Aim: How is each immortal portrayed? How do they control human fate?

Text: Book 15 of Iliad


Do Now: Read a summary of book 14 to understand what leads to the smoldering scene in the beginning of book 15.

Mini Lesson:

Annotations: Skim through the Hunter College Writing Center Annotating a Text page. Jot down in your notebook a few ideas that you will use to annotate the text you are about to read.

Share ways to annotate a text. For example-

•clearly identify where in the text important ideas and information are located
•express the main ideas of a text
•trace the development of ideas/arguments throughout a text
•introduce a few of the reader’s thoughts and reactions
•ask questions

Read the 1st verse below and annotate it in a way that helps you interact with the text and construct meaning from it.

Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound,
And many a chief lay gasping on the ground:
Then stopp’d and panted, where the chariots lie
Fear on their cheek, and horror in their eye.
Meanwhile, awaken’d from his dream of love,
On Ida’s summit sat imperial Jove:
Round the wide fields he cast a careful view,
There saw the Trojans fly, the Greeks pursue;
These proud in arms, those scatter’d o’er the plain
And, ‘midst the war, the monarch of the main.
Not far, great Hector on the dust he spies,
(His sad associates round with weeping eyes,)
Ejecting blood, and panting yet for breath,
His senses wandering to the verge of death.
The god beheld him with a pitying look,
And thus, incensed, to fraudful Juno spoke:

Independent Practice

  1. Each group will read an assigned  passage. Annotate the text to identify and highlight words/phrase that depict each immortal through his/her speech, action and reaction.
  2. We will share our annotations within each small group.
  3. In the small group, make a claim together based on the details you have highlighted or circled.
  4. As a class, we will share the claim each group has made about an immortal.

Group 1: How would you describe Juno in this verse? Why? Make claim statement to reveal Juno’s agony.

(Juno)“O thou, still adverse to the eternal will,
For ever studious in promoting ill!
Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield,
And driven his conquering squadrons from the field.
Canst thou, unhappy in thy wiles, withstand
Our power immense, and brave the almighty hand?
Hast thou forgot, when, bound and fix’d on high,
From the vast concave of the spangled sky,
I hung thee trembling in a golden chain,
And all the raging gods opposed in vain?
Headlong I hurl’d them from the Olympian hall,
Stunn’d in the whirl, and breathless with the fall.
For godlike Hercules these deeds were done,
Nor seem’d the vengeance worthy such a son:
When, by thy wiles induced, fierce Boreas toss’d
The shipwreck’d hero on the Coan coast,
Him through a thousand forms of death I bore,
And sent to Argos, and his native shore.
Hear this, remember, and our fury dread,
Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head;
Lest arts and blandishments successless prove,
Thy soft deceits, and well-dissembled love.”
The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn’d,
And, trembling, these submissive words return’d:
“By every oath that powers immortal ties,
The foodful earth and all-infolding skies;
By thy black waves, tremendous Styx! that flow
Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below;
By the dread honours of thy sacred head,
And that unbroken vow, our virgin bed!
Not by my arts the ruler of the main
Steeps Troy in blood, and ranges round the plain:
By his own ardour, his own pity sway’d,
To help his Greeks, he fought and disobey’d:
Else had thy Juno better counsels given,
And taught submission to the sire of heaven.”

Group 2: Identify examples of imagery that help develop Jove’s character.Describe her character in a claim statement.

( Jove)“Think’st thou with me? fair empress of the skies!
(The immortal father with a smile replies;)
Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey,
Nor dare to act but when we point the way.
If truth inspires thy tongue, proclaim our will
To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill;
Our high decree let various Iris know,
And call the god that bears the silver bow.
Let her descend, and from the embattled plain
Command the sea-god to his watery reign:
While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare
To rise afresh, and once more wake the war:
His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath,
And calls his senses from the verge of death.
Greece chased by Troy, even to Achilles’ fleet,
Shall fall by thousands at the hero’s feet.
He, not untouch’d with pity, to the plain
Shall send Patroclus, but shall send in vain.
What youths he slaughters under Ilion’s walls!
Even my loved son, divine Sarpedon, falls!
Vanquish’d at last by Hector’s lance he lies.
Then, nor till then, shall great Achilles rise:
And lo! that instant, godlike Hector dies.
From that great hour the war’s whole fortune turns,
Pallas assists, and lofty Ilion burns.
Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage,
Nor one of all the heavenly host engage
In aid of Greece. The promise of a god
I gave, and seal’d it with the almighty nod,
Achilles’ glory to the stars to raise;
Such was our word, and fate the word obeys.”

Group 3: Identify  imagery that portray Juno’s power and status. Make a claim based on the topic.

(Juno) The trembling queen (the almighty order given)
Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven.
As some wayfaring man, who wanders o’er
In thought a length of lands he trod before,
Sends forth his active mind from place to place,
Joins hill to dale, and measures space with space:
So swift flew Juno to the bless’d abodes,
If thought of man can match the speed of gods.
There sat the powers in awful synod placed;
They bow’d, and made obeisance as she pass’d
Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown’d 238
They hail her queen; the nectar streams around.
Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl,
And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul?

Group 4: Identify phrases or words ( nouns and verbs) that portray Juno’s attitude toward Jove. Make a claim statement about her attitude.

To whom the white-arm’d goddess thus replies:
Enough thou know’st the tyrant of the skies,
Severely bent his purpose to fulfil,
Unmoved his mind, and unrestrain’d his will.
Go thou, the feasts of heaven attend thy call;
Bid the crown’d nectar circle round the hall:
But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome
Such stern decrees, such threaten’d woes to come,
As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise,
And damp the eternal banquets of the skies.”

The goddess said, and sullen took her place;
Black horror sadden’d each celestial face.
To see the gathering grudge in every breast,
Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express’d;
While on her wrinkled front, and eyebrow bent,
Sat stedfast care, and lowering discontent.
Thus she proceeds —“Attend, ye powers above!
But know, ’tis madness to contest with Jove:
Supreme he sits; and sees, in pride of sway.
Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey:
Fierce in the majesty of power controls;
Shakes all the thrones of heaven, and bends the poles.
Submiss, immortals! all he wills, obey:
And thou, great Mars, begin and show the way.
Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die,
But dare not murmur, dare not vent a sigh;
Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o’erthrown,
If that loved boasted offspring be thy own.”

Group 5: Identify examples of alliteration, repetition, metonymy, and imagery that reveal his character as a god of war.Make a claim about Mars based on the verse.

Stern Mars, with anguish for his slaughter’d son,
Smote his rebelling breast, and fierce begun:
“Thus then, immortals! thus shall Mars obey;
Forgive me, gods, and yield my vengeance way:
Descending first to yon forbidden plain,
The god of battles dares avenge the slain;
Dares, though the thunder bursting o’er my head
Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead.”

With that he gives command to Fear and Flight
To join his rapid coursers for the fight:
Then grim in arms, with hasty vengeance flies;
Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies.

Group 6: How is Pallas portrayed as a goddess of wisdom? How does she sooth Mars? Identify words or phrases that reveal her beliefs in destiny.

And now had Jove, by bold rebellion driven,
Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven;
But Pallas, springing through the bright abode,
Starts from her azure throne to calm the god.
Struck for the immortal race with timely fear,
From frantic Mars she snatch’d the shield and spear;
Then the huge helmet lifting from his head,
Thus to the impetuous homicide she said:
“By what wild passion, furious! art thou toss’d?
Striv’st thou with Jove? thou art already lost.
Shall not the Thunderer’s dread command restrain,
And was imperial Juno heard in vain?
Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven,
And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven?
Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage,
The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage;
Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate
And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state.
Cease then thy offspring’s death unjust to call;
Heroes as great have died, and yet shall fall.
Why should heaven’s law with foolish man comply
Exempted from the race ordain’d to die?”

This menace fix’d the warrior to his throne;
Sullen he sat, and curb’d the rising groan.
Then Juno call’d (Jove’s orders to obey)
The winged Iris, and the god of day.
“Go wait the Thunderer’s will (Saturnia cried)
On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide:
There in the father’s awful presence stand,
Receive, and execute his dread command.”

End of the Lesson Assessment: How is Jove’s power portrayed ? How does his power affect the immorals and mortals?

Homework: Continue reading Book 15. Determine a purpose for your own reading. State the purpose and annotate the verse accordingly. Bring in your annotations based on self-assigned purposes to the class tomorrow.We’ll share and use them for close reading.

Lesson 19

Objectives: Students will grasp details of how Poseidon gets involved in the Trojan war and how Apollo saves Hector.

Aim: How do the gods continue their involvement in the Trojan war? What are the effects caused due to their interference?

Text: pages 8-17 of Book 15

Do now: How is the horse described on page 10 of book 15 starting ” When the pampered steed with reins unbound to ..full of the gods”?

Mini Lesson-

How is the conflict between Jove and Neptune portrayed? How do they differ in their attitude toward Troy?

“Attend the mandate of the sire above!
In me behold the messenger of Jove:
He bids thee from forbidden wars repair
To thine own deeps, or to the fields of air.
This if refused, he bids thee timely weigh
His elder birthright, and superior sway.
How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms
If heaven’s omnipotence descend in arms?
Striv’st thou with him by whom all power is given?
And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?”

“What means the haughty sovereign of the skies?
(The king of ocean thus, incensed, replies;)
Rule as he will his portion’d realms on high;
No vassal god, nor of his train, am I.
Three brother deities from Saturn came,
And ancient Rhea, earth’s immortal dame:
Assign’d by lot, our triple rule we know;
Infernal Pluto sways the shades below;
O’er the wide clouds, and o’er the starry plain,
Ethereal Jove extends his high domain;
My court beneath the hoary waves I keep,
And hush the roarings of the sacred deep;
Olympus, and this earth, in common lie:
What claim has here the tyrant of the sky?
Far in the distant clouds let him control,
And awe the younger brothers of the pole;
There to his children his commands be given,
The trembling, servile, second race of heaven.”
“And must I then (said she), O sire of floods!
Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods?
Correct it yet, and change thy rash intent;
A noble mind disdains not to repent.
To elder brothers guardian fiends are given,
To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven.”

“Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin’d)
When ministers are blest with prudent mind:
Warn’d by thy words, to powerful Jove I yield,
And quit, though angry, the contended field:
Not but his threats with justice I disclaim,
The same our honours, and our birth the same.
If yet, forgetful of his promise given
To Hermes, Pallas, and the queen of heaven,
To favour Ilion, that perfidious place,
He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race;
Give him to know, unless the Grecian train
Lay yon proud structures level with the plain,
Howe’er the offence by other gods be pass’d,
The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last.”
Thus speaking, furious from the field he strode,
And plunged into the bosom of the flood.

The lord of thunders, from his lofty height
Beheld, and thus bespoke the source of light:
“Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl’d
Around the globe, whose earthquakes rock the world,
Desists at length his rebel-war to wage,
Seeks his own seas, and trembles at our rage;
Else had my wrath, heaven’s thrones all shaking round,
Burn’d to the bottom of his seas profound;

And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell
Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell.
Well was the crime, and well the vengeance spared;
Even power immense had found such battle hard.
Go thou, my son! the trembling Greeks alarm,
Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm,
Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care,
Swell his bold heart, and urge his strength to war:
Let Ilion conquer, till the Achaian train
Fly to their ships and Hellespont again:
Then Greece shall breathe from toils.”

Student Independent Practice-

Group 1: Gather textual evidence to respond to- How does Phoebus save Hector? (9-10)

Group 2: Gather evidence to respond to -How Thoas react to Hector’s “resurrection”?(11)

Group 3: Gather evidence to respond to –How does the battle between Greeks and Trojans escalate after Hector was saved by Apollo (12)?

Group 4: Gather evidence to respond to- How does Apollo help the Trojans? How does he feel with his work? (13-14)

Group 5: Gather evidence to respond to –How are Greeks’ fleet described? (15) How is Ajax described confronting Hector and when his companion Lycophone got killed(16)?

Homework: Read and respond: How does Hector encourage Trojans to continue the fight against Greeks( 18)? How does Ajax do the same to the Greeks? (19)

Lesson 20

Objectives: Students will write a critical summary of the assigned passage and make a claim based on the text by using annotative skills.

Aim: What is the passage about? What is the point does he try to make? How does he convey the point?

Do now: Review lesson 18.

Mini Lesson:

How to write a summary of a passage?

  1. Identify the events
  2. Identify the logical relations that connect the events
  3. Prioritize the details of the event
  4. Identify the key words that can be used in the summary

What’s the claim?

  • Notice and Focus
  • Method- pattern, binary, repetition, strand, anomaly, etc
  • So what?

Student Independent Practice-

Assign a passage for each group-

After reading the passage,-

  1. Write a summary
  2. Make a claim
  3. List at least three textual evidence to support the claim

Homework: Read Book 16 and describe how the book is different from all the other books we have read. Select a specific passage to illustrate its unique narrative.

Lesson 21

Objectives: Students will describe how book 16 of Iliad is different from the rest of the books we have read by selecting  a specific passage to illustrate its unique narrative.

Aim: Why is Book 16 unique?

Do Now:  Share your homework based on book 15 within your group.

  1. Write a summary
  2. Make a claim
  3. List at least three textual evidence to support the claim

Mini Lesson: Summary and analysis

Click the link to read examples of summary and analysis (

Student Independent Practice-

Each group respond to two of the questions below . Be sure to use direct quotations from the text.

Iliad 16

1. How appropriate is the simile on the first page of book 16 which compares Patroclus to a little girl weeping for mother? What is Achilles’ point in making it? What effect does it have on the audience of the poem (you!)?

2. What is Achilles’ reaction to Patroclus’ speech that includes the provocative exclamation “You and your damned Honor!”  How does Achilles justify sending Patroclus out to fight in his place?

3. What are Achilles’ special instructions to Patroclus ? What does he say about his sense of honor? What does the end of his speech say about the strength of his friendship with Patroclus?

4. In Patroclus’ arming scene, Homer specifically tells us that Patroclus does not take Achilles’ spear. Why? How does this relate to Nestor’s cup in book 11 (11.674) How does it relate to Achilles’ cup in this book ? What is special about Achilles’ horses?

5. What religious ceremony does Achilles perform before sending out his troops to fight? What special vessel does he use for it? How effective is it? Usually prayers offer something to gods. How does this prayer fit that pattern?

6. How does Patroclus make a political statement against Agamemnon out of the Myrmidons’ re-entry into battle? And how does the sight of Patroclus in battle affect the Trojans?

7. Look at Zeus’ reaction to his son Sarpedon’s death . What does this say about the relation between ‘fate’ and the gods?

8. Why is there such a terrible fight over Sarpedon’s body?

9. Following Sarpedon’s death, his dejected and wounded comrade Glaucus prays to Apollo . Usually prayers offer something to gods. How does this prayer fit that pattern? What is Apollo’s reaction?

10. How does Zeus make sure that Sarpedon’s body is treated properly?

11. What responsibility does Patroclus have for his own death? To what extent is Apollo responsible? To what extend it Hector responsible? To what extent is Achilles responsible? To what extent is Zeus responsible? Euphorbus? Fate?

12. Which god is Hector’s patron in this book? What does this god have to do with prophecy? What is ironic about Patroclus’ prophecy to Hector , that Hector rejects?

Homework: What’s one of the most important themes revealed in this book? Why? ( Bring in book 22 tomorrow).

Pick one verse from Book 22 and use the five analytical moves to read closely the selected passage-

Five Analytical Moves

Move 1:  Suspend judgment (understand before you judge)

Move 2: Define significant parts ( Notice and Focus) and how they are related

Move 3: Look for patterns of repetition and contrast and for anomalies ( aka The Method)

Move 4: Make an implicit explicit (convert to direct statement meanings that are only suggested- make details speak)

Move 5: Keep reforming questions and explanations (what other details seem significant? What else might the mean?

Lesson 22

Objectives: Students will make inferences about the themes  by  discussing the heighlighted scenes of Book 16, Book 18 and 22 of The Iliad.


  • In what ways does Achilles’ grief over Patroclus modify the conception of glory on which he operates? Compare and contrast how Achilles identifies honor and glory before Book 16 (and in Book 16) with what he says about them after he learns Patroclus has died. How does Achilles’ fighting, in Books 20-22, compare with what he says?
  • In what ways does Achilles pass beyond the ordinary limits of humanity, in the aftermath of Patroclus’s death? How does the epic mark Achilles’ transgressions of human limits?
  • What do the gods’ fights in Book 22 do to advance the tale of Achilles’ heroism? What principles help settle conflicts among the gods over the Trojan War?


Do Now: How are the horses depicted in the verse?

PASSAGE 1: Descriptions of  horses ( book 16)

    1. Meantime, at distance from the scene of blood,
    2. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood:
    3. Their godlike master slain before their eyes,
    4. They wept, and shared in human miseries.
    5. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein,
    6. Now plies the lash, and soothes and threats in vain;
    7. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go,
    8. Restive they stood, and obstinate in woe:
    9. Still as a tombstone, never to be moved,
    10. On some good man or woman unreproved
    11. Lays its eternal weight; or fix’d, as stands
    12. A marble courser by the sculptor’s hands,
    13. Placed on the hero’s grave. Along their face
    14. The big round drops coursed down with silent pace,
    15. Conglobing on the dust. Their manes, that late
    16. Circled their arched necks, and waved in state,
    17. Trail’d on the dust beneath the yoke were spread,
    18. And prone to earth was hung their languid head:
    19. …………
    20. He said; and breathing in the immortal horse
    21. Excessive spirit, urged them to the course;
    22. From their high manes they shake the dust, and bear
    23. The kindling chariot through the parted war:
    24. So flies a vulture through the clamorous train
    25. Of geese, that scream, and scatter round the plain.
    26. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew,
    27. And now to conquest with like speed pursue;
    28. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains,
    29. Now plies the javelin, now directs the reins:
    1. Passage 2: Petroclus’ Death ( Book 16)( pages 25-32)
    1. Mini Lesson- Read closely of Passage 2 about Petroclus’ death. Discuss how his sudden death is by fate.
    1. Then Hector pausing, as his eyes he fed
    2. On the pale carcase, thus address’d the dead:
    3. “From whence this boding speech, the stern decree
    4. Of death denounced, or why denounced to me?
    5. Why not as well Achilles’ fate be given
    6. To Hector’s lance? Who knows the will of heaven?”
    7. Pensive he said; then pressing as he lay
    8. His breathless bosom, tore the lance away;
    9. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear
    10. He shakes, and charges the bold charioteer.
    11. But swift Automedon with loosen’d reins
    12. Rapt in the chariot o’er the distant plains,
    13. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove;
    14. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove.
    1. Then thus to Phoebus, in the realms above,
    2. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove:
    3. “Descend, my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain,
    4. And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain;
    5. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood,
    6. With dust dishonour’d, and deform’d with blood;
    7. O’er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed,
    8. And with celestial robes adorn the dead.
    9. Those rites discharged, his sacred corse bequeath
    10. To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death.
    11. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear;
    12. His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear:
    13. What honour mortals after death receive,
    14. Those unavailing honours we may give!”
    15. Apollo bows, and from mount Ida’s height,
    16. Swift to the field precipitates his flight;
    17. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore,
    18. Veil’d in a cloud, to silver Simois’ shore;
    19. There bathed his honourable wounds, and dress’d
    20. His manly members in the immortal vest;
    21. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews
    22. Restores his freshness, and his form renews.
    23. Then Sleep and Death, two twins of winged race,
    24. Of matchless swiftness, but of silent pace,
    25. Received Sarpedon, at the god’s command,
    26. And in a moment reach’d the Lycian land;
    27. The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid,
    28. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade.
    29. Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains,
    30. With foaming coursers, and with loosen’d reins.
    31. Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew,
    32. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew
    33. Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain,
    34. Vain was thy friend’s command, thy courage vain.
    35. For he, the god, whose counsels uncontroll’d
    36. Dismay the mighty, and confound the bold;
    37. The god who gives, resumes, and orders all,
    38. He urged thee on, and urged thee on to fall.
    39. Who first, brave hero! by that arm was slain,
    40. Who last beneath thy vengeance press’d the plain;
    41. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led,
    42. And call’d to fill the number of the dead?
    43. Adrestus first; Autonous then succeeds;
    44. Echeclus follows; next young Megas bleeds,
    45. Epistor, Melanippus, bite the ground;
    46. The slaughter, Elasus and Mulius crown’d:
    47. Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night;
    48. The rest, dispersing, trust their fates to flight.
    49. Now Troy had stoop’d beneath his matchless power,
    50. But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower
    51. Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook; 245
    52. His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook;
    53. He tried the fourth; when, bursting from the cloud,
    54. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud.
    55. “Patroclus! cease; this heaven-defended wall
    56. Defies thy lance; not fated yet to fall;
    57. Thy friend, thy greater far, it shall withstand,
    58. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles’ hand.”
    59. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires;
    60. The Greek obeys him, and with awe retires.
    61. While Hector, checking at the Scaean gates
    62. His panting coursers, in his breast debates,
    63. Or in the field his forces to employ,
    64. Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy.
    65. Thus while he thought, beside him Phoebus stood,
    66. In Asius’ shape, who reigned by Sangar’s flood;
    67. (Thy brother, Hecuba! from Dymas sprung,
    68. A valiant warrior, haughty, bold, and young;)
    69. Thus he accosts him. “What a shameful sight!
    70. God! is it Hector that forbears the fight?
    71. Were thine my vigour this successful spear
    72. Should soon convince thee of so false a fear.
    73. Turn thee, ah turn thee to the field of fame,
    74. And in Patroclus’ blood efface thy shame.
    75. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed,
    76. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed.”
    77. So spoke the inspiring god; then took his flight,
    78. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight.
    79. He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car;
    80. The lash resounds, the coursers rush to war.
    81. The god the Grecians’ sinking souls depress’d,
    82. And pour’d swift spirits through each Trojan breast.
    83. Patroclus lights, impatient for the fight;
    84. A spear his left, a stone employs his right:
    85. With all his nerves he drives it at the foe.
    86. Pointed above, and rough and gross below:
    87. The falling ruin crush’d Cebrion’s head,
    88. The lawless offspring of king Priam’s bed;
    89. His front, brows, eyes, one undistinguish’d wound:
    90. The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground.
    91. The charioteer, while yet he held the rein,
    92. Struck from the car, falls headlong on the plain.
    93. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides,
    94. While the proud victor thus his fall derides.
    95. “Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows!
    96. What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes!
    97. Mark with what ease they sink into the sand!
    98. Pity that all their practice is by land!”
    99. Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize,
    100. To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies:
    101. Swift as a lion, terrible and bold,
    102. That sweeps the field, depopulates the fold;
    103. Pierced through the dauntless heart, then tumbles slain,
    104. And from his fatal courage finds his bane.
    105. At once bold Hector leaping from his car,
    106. Defends the body, and provokes the war.
    107. Thus for some slaughter’d hind, with equal rage,
    108. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage;
    109. Stung with fierce hunger, each the prey invades,
    110. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades.
    111. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior’s head,
    112. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead:
    113. While all around, confusion, rage, and fright,
    114. Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight.
    115. So pent by hills, the wild winds roar aloud
    116. In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood;
    117. Leaves, arms, and trees, aloft in air are blown,
    118. The broad oaks crackle, and the Sylvans groan;
    119. This way and that, the rattling thicket bends,
    120. And the whole forest in one crash descends.
    121. Not with less noise, with less tumultuous rage,
    122. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage.
    123. Darts shower’d on darts, now round the carcase ring;
    124. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string:
    125. Stones follow stones; some clatter on the fields,
    126. Some hard, and heavy, shake the sounding shields.
    127. But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains,
    128. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains,
    129. And, stretch’d in death, forgets the guiding reins!
    130. Now flaming from the zenith, Sol had driven
    131. His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven;
    132. While on each host with equal tempests fell
    133. The showering darts, and numbers sank to hell.
    134. But when his evening wheels o’erhung the main,
    135. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train.
    136. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms,
    137. They draw the conquer’d corse and radiant arms.
    138. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows,
    139. And breathing slaughter, pours amid the foes.
    140. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew,
    141. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew.
    142. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine
    143. The last, black remnant of so bright a line:
    144. Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way;
    145. Death calls, and heaven allows no longer day!
    146. For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined,
    147. Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind.
    148. The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel;
    149. His eyes flash sparkles, his stunn’d senses reel
    150. In giddy darkness; far to distance flung,
    151. His bounding helmet on the champaign rung.
    152. Achilles’ plume is stain’d with dust and gore;
    153. That plume which never stoop’d to earth before;
    154. Long used, untouch’d, in fighting fields to shine,
    155. And shade the temples of the mad divine.
    156. Jove dooms it now on Hector’s helm to nod;
    157. Not long — for fate pursues him, and the god.
    158. His spear in shivers falls; his ample shield
    159. Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field:
    160. The corslet his astonish’d breast forsakes:
    161. Loose is each joint; each nerve with horror shakes;
    162. Stupid he stares, and all-assistless stands:
    163. Such is the force of more than mortal hands!
    164. A Dardan youth there was, well known to fame,
    165. From Panthus sprung, Euphorbus was his name;
    166. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse,
    167. Skill’d in the dart, and matchless in the course:
    168. Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car,
    169. While yet he learn’d his rudiments of war.
    170. His venturous spear first drew the hero’s gore;
    171. He struck, he wounded, but he durst no more.
    172. Nor, though disarm’d, Patroclus’ fury stood:
    173. But swift withdrew the long-protended wood.
    174. And turn’d him short, and herded in the crowd.
    175. Thus, by an arm divine, and mortal spear,
    176. Wounded, at once, Patroclus yields to fear,
    177. Retires for succour to his social train,
    178. And flies the fate, which heaven decreed, in vain.
    179. Stern Hector, as the bleeding chief he views,
    180. Breaks through the ranks, and his retreat pursues:
    181. The lance arrests him with a mortal wound;
    182. He falls, earth thunders, and his arms resound.
    183. With him all Greece was sunk; that moment all
    184. Her yet-surviving heroes seem’d to fall.
    185. So, scorch’d with heat, along the desert score,
    186. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar,
    187. Fast by the spring; they both dispute the flood,
    188. With flaming eyes, and jaws besmear’d with blood;
    189. At length the sovereign savage wins the strife;
    190. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life.
    191. Patroclus thus, so many chiefs o’erthrown,
    192. So many lives effused, expires his own.
    193. As dying now at Hector’s feet he lies,
    194. He sternly views him, and triumphant cries:
    195. “Lie there, Patroclus! and with thee, the joy
    196. Thy pride once promised, of subverting Troy;
    197. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames,
    198. And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames.
    199. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free,
    200. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee:
    201. But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made;
    202. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid;
    203. Though much at parting that great chief might say,
    204. And much enjoin thee, this important day.
    205. ‘Return not, my brave friend (perhaps he said),
    206. Without the bloody arms of Hector dead.’
    207. He spoke, Patroclus march’d, and thus he sped.”
    208. Supine, and wildly gazing on the skies,
    209. With faint, expiring breath, the chief replies:
    210. “Vain boaster! cease, and know the powers divine!
    211. Jove’s and Apollo’s is this deed, not thine;
    212. To heaven is owed whate’er your own you call,
    213. And heaven itself disarm’d me ere my fall.
    214. Had twenty mortals, each thy match in might,
    215. Opposed me fairly, they had sunk in fight:
    216. By fate and Phoebus was I first o’erthrown,
    217. Euphorbus next; the third mean part thy own.
    218. But thou, imperious! hear my latest breath;
    219. The gods inspire it, and it sounds thy death:
    220. Insulting man, thou shalt be soon as I;
    221. Black fate o’erhangs thee, and thy hour draws nigh;
    222. Even now on life’s last verge I see thee stand,
    223. I see thee fall, and by Achilles’ hand.”
    224. He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way,
    225. (The beauteous body left a load of clay)
    226. Flits to the lone, uncomfortable coast;
    227. A naked, wandering, melancholy ghost!

Passage 3: Achilles’ Shield Book 8

  1. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame
  2. Reach’d the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame!
  3. High-eminent amid the works divine,
  4. Where heaven’s far-beaming brazen mansions shine.
  5. There the lame architect the goddess found,
  6. Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round,
  7. While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew;
  8. And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew.
  9. That day no common task his labour claim’d:
  • Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed,
  1. That placed on living wheels of massy gold,
  2. (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll’d
  3. From place to place, around the bless’d abodes
  4. Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods:
  5. For their fair handles now, o’erwrought with flowers,
  6. In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours.
  7. Just as responsive to his thought the frame
  • Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came:
  1. Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair,
  2. (With purple fillets round her braided hair,)
  3. Observed her entering; her soft hand she press’d,
  4. And, smiling, thus the watery queen address’d:
  5. “What, goddess! this unusual favour draws?
  6. All hail, and welcome! whatsoe’er the cause;
  7. Till now a stranger, in a happy hour
  8. Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower.”
  • High on a throne, with stars of silver graced,
  1. And various artifice, the queen she placed;
  2. A footstool at her feet: then calling, said,
  3. “Vulcan, draw near, ’tis Thetis asks your aid.”
  4. “Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim,
  5. An ever-dear, an ever-honour’d name!
  6. When my proud mother hurl’d me from the sky,
  7. (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,)
  8. She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress’d,
  9. And soft received me on their silver breast.
  • Even then these arts employ’d my infant thought:
  1. Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought.
  2. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode,
  3. Secure I lay, conceal’d from man and god:
  4. Deep in a cavern’d rock my days were led;
  5. The rushing ocean murmur’d o’er my head.
  6. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say,
  7. For such desert what service can I pay?
  8. Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share
  9. The genial rites, and hospitable fare;
  • While I the labours of the forge forego,
  1. And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow.”
  2. Then from his anvil the lame artist rose;
  3. Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes,
  4. And stills the bellows, and (in order laid)
  5. Locks in their chests his instruments of trade.
  6. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress’d
  7. His brawny arms embrown’d, and hairy breast.
  8. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire,
  9. Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire:
  • The monarch’s steps two female forms uphold,
  1. That moved and breathed in animated gold;
  2. To whom was voice, and sense, and science given
  3. Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!)
  4. On these supported, with unequal gait,
  5. He reach’d the throne where pensive Thetis sate;
  6. There placed beside her on the shining frame,
  7. He thus address’d the silver-footed dame:
  8. “Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls
  9. (So long a stranger) to these honour’d walls?
  • ’Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay,
  1. And Vulcan’s joy and duty to obey.”
  2. To whom the mournful mother thus replies:
  3. (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:)
  4. “O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine
  • So pierced with sorrows, so o’erwhelm’d as mine?
  • Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare
  • For Thetis only such a weight of care?
  • I, only I, of all the watery race
  • By force subjected to a man’s embrace,
  1. Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays
  2. The mighty fine imposed on length of days.
  • Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came,
  1. The bravest sure that ever bore the name;
  • Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand
  1. He grew, he flourish’d, and he graced the land:
  2. To Troy I sent him! but his native shore
  3. Never, ah never, shall receive him more;
  4. (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;)
  5. Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow!
  6. Robb’d of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave,
  7. The king of nations forced his royal slave:
  8. For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress’d
  9. Required his arm, he sorrow’d unredress’d.
  10. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send;
  11. In vain — he arms not, but permits his friend
  12. His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ:
  13. He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy:
  14. Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name)
  15. At once resigns his armour, life, and fame.
  • But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won:
  1. Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son,
  2. And to the field in martial pomp restore,
  3. To shine with glory, till he shines no more!”
  4. To her the artist-god: “Thy griefs resign,
  5. Secure, what Vulcan can, is ever thine.
    1. could I hide him from the Fates, as well,
  6. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel,
  7. As I shall forge most envied arms, the gaze
  8. Of wondering ages, and the world’s amaze!”
  9. Thus having said, the father of the fires
  10. To the black labours of his forge retires.
  11. Soon as he bade them blow, the bellows turn’d
  12. Their iron mouths; and where the furnace burn’d,
  13. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires,
  14. And twenty forges catch at once the fires;
  15. Just as the god directs, now loud, now low,
  16. They raise a tempest, or they gently blow;
  17. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll’d,
  18. And stubborn brass, and tin, and solid gold;
  19. Before, deep fix’d, the eternal anvils stand;
  20. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand,
  21. His left with tongs turns the vex’d metal round,
  22. And thick, strong strokes, the doubling vaults rebound.
  23. Then first he form’d the immense and solid shield;
  24. Rich various artifice emblazed the field;
  25. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound; 252
  26. A silver chain suspends the massy round;
  27. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose,
  28. And godlike labours on the surface rose.
  29. There shone the image of the master-mind:
  30. There earth, there heaven, there ocean he design’d;
  31. The unwearied sun, the moon completely round;
  32. The starry lights that heaven’s high convex crown’d;
  33. The Pleiads, Hyads, with the northern team;
  34. And great Orion’s more refulgent beam;
  35. To which, around the axle of the sky,
  36. The Bear, revolving, points his golden eye,
  37. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain,
  38. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main.
  39. Two cities radiant on the shield appear,
  40. The image one of peace, and one of war.
  41. Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight,
  42. And solemn dance, and hymeneal rite;
  43. Along the street the new-made brides are led,
  44. With torches flaming, to the nuptial bed:
  45. The youthful dancers in a circle bound
  46. To the soft flute, and cithern’s silver sound:
  47. Through the fair streets the matrons in a row
  48. Stand in their porches, and enjoy the show.
  49. There in the forum swarm a numerous train;
  50. The subject of debate, a townsman slain:
  51. One pleads the fine discharged, which one denied,
  52. And bade the public and the laws decide:
  53. The witness is produced on either hand:
  54. For this, or that, the partial people stand:
  55. The appointed heralds still the noisy bands,
  56. And form a ring, with sceptres in their hands:
  57. On seats of stone, within the sacred place, 253
  58. The reverend elders nodded o’er the case;
  59. Alternate, each the attesting sceptre took,
  60. And rising solemn, each his sentence spoke
  61. Two golden talents lay amidst, in sight,
  62. The prize of him who best adjudged the right.
  63. Another part (a prospect differing far) 254
  64. Glow’d with refulgent arms, and horrid war.
  65. Two mighty hosts a leaguer’d town embrace,
  66. And one would pillage, one would burn the place.
  67. Meantime the townsmen, arm’d with silent care,
  68. A secret ambush on the foe prepare:
  69. Their wives, their children, and the watchful band
  70. Of trembling parents, on the turrets stand.
  71. They march; by Pallas and by Mars made bold:
  72. Gold were the gods, their radiant garments gold,
  73. And gold their armour: these the squadron led,
  74. August, divine, superior by the head!
  75. A place for ambush fit they found, and stood,
  76. Cover’d with shields, beside a silver flood.
  77. Two spies at distance lurk, and watchful seem
  78. If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream.
  79. Soon the white flocks proceeded o’er the plains,
  80. And steers slow-moving, and two shepherd swains;
  81. Behind them piping on their reeds they go,
  82. Nor fear an ambush, nor suspect a foe.
  83. In arms the glittering squadron rising round
  84. Rush sudden; hills of slaughter heap the ground;
  85. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains,
  86. And, all amidst them, dead, the shepherd swains!
  87. The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear;
  88. They rise, take horse, approach, and meet the war,
  89. They fight, they fall, beside the silver flood;
  90. The waving silver seem’d to blush with blood.
  91. There Tumult, there Contention stood confess’d;
  92. One rear’d a dagger at a captive’s breast;
  93. One held a living foe, that freshly bled
  94. With new-made wounds; another dragg’d a dead;
  95. Now here, now there, the carcases they tore:
  96. Fate stalk’d amidst them, grim with human gore.
  97. And the whole war came out, and met the eye;
  98. And each bold figure seem’d to live or die.
  99. A field deep furrow’d next the god design’d, 255
  100. The third time labour’d by the sweating hind;
  101. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide,
  102. And turn their crooked yokes on every side.
  103. Still as at either end they wheel around,
  104. The master meets them with his goblet crown’d;
  105. The hearty draught rewards, renews their toil,
  106. Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil:
  107. Behind, the rising earth in ridges roll’d;
  108. And sable look’d, though form’d of molten gold.
  109. Another field rose high with waving grain;
  110. With bended sickles stand the reaper train:
  111. Here stretched in ranks the levell’d swarths are found,
  112. Sheaves heap’d on sheaves here thicken up the ground.
  113. With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands;
  114. The gatherers follow, and collect in bands;
  115. And last the children, in whose arms are borne
  116. (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn.
  117. The rustic monarch of the field descries,
  118. With silent glee, the heaps around him rise.
  119. A ready banquet on the turf is laid,
  120. Beneath an ample oak’s expanded shade.
  121. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare;
  122. The reaper’s due repast, the woman’s care.
  123. Next, ripe in yellow gold, a vineyard shines,
  124. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines;
  125. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show,
  126. And curl’d on silver props, in order glow:
  127. A darker metal mix’d intrench’d the place;
  128. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace.
  129. To this, one pathway gently winding leads,
  130. Where march a train with baskets on their heads,
  131. (Fair maids and blooming youths,) that smiling bear
  132. The purple product of the autumnal year.
  133. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings,
  134. Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings;
  135. In measured dance behind him move the train,
  136. Tune soft the voice, and answer to the strain.
  137. Here herds of oxen march, erect and bold,
  138. Rear high their horns, and seem to low in gold,
  139. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores
  140. A rapid torrent through the rushes roars:
  141. Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand,
  142. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band.
  143. Two lions rushing from the wood appear’d;
  144. And seized a bull, the master of the herd:
  145. He roar’d: in vain the dogs, the men withstood;
  146. They tore his flesh, and drank his sable blood.
  147. The dogs (oft cheer’d in vain) desert the prey,
  148. Dread the grim terrors, and at distance bay.
  149. Next this, the eye the art of Vulcan leads
  150. Deep through fair forests, and a length of meads,
  151. And stalls, and folds, and scatter’d cots between;
  152. And fleecy flocks, that whiten all the scene.
  153. A figured dance succeeds; such once was seen
  154. In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen,
  155. Form’d by Daedalean art; a comely band
  156. Of youths and maidens, bounding hand in hand.
  157. The maids in soft simars of linen dress’d;
  158. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest:
  159. Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll’d;
  160. Of these the sides adorn’d with swords of gold,
  161. That glittering gay, from silver belts depend.
  162. Now all at once they rise, at once descend,
  163. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways,
  164. Confusedly regular, the moving maze:
  165. Now forth at once, too swift for sight, they spring,
  166. And undistinguish’d blend the flying ring:
  167. So whirls a wheel, in giddy circle toss’d,
  168. And, rapid as it runs, the single spokes are lost.
  169. The gazing multitudes admire around:
  170. Two active tumblers in the centre bound;
  171. Now high, now low, their pliant limbs they bend:
  172. And general songs the sprightly revel end.
  173. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown’d
  174. With his last hand, and pour’d the ocean round:
  175. In living silver seem’d the waves to roll,
  176. And beat the buckler’s verge, and bound the whole.
  177. This done, whate’er a warrior’s use requires
  178. He forged; the cuirass that outshone the fires,
  179. The greaves of ductile tin, the helm impress’d
  180. With various sculpture, and the golden crest.
  181. At Thetis’ feet the finished labour lay:
  182. She, as a falcon cuts the aerial way,
  183. Swift from Olympus’ snowy summit flies,
  184. And bears the blazing present through the skies.256

Homework: Describe five most interesting scenes you can identify  on the shield. Read book 22 and find the verse that describes how Hector is killed by Achilles.

Lesson 23

Objectives: Students will discuss the themes of family, fate and revenge by examining various characters’ reactions to Hector’s death.

Aim: Why does Achilles drag Hector’s body in front of Priam and Hecuba? What do the gods’ fights do to advance the tale of Achilles’ heroism? What principles help settle conflicts among the gods over the Trojan War?

Do now: Share the poem you have written using allusions.

Mini Lesson

Dramatic tension in book 22.How is the human side portrayed in this book (22)? How does Homer use a close-up strategy to bring to readers the senselessness of a war- victory for victors, tragedy for victims.

Student Independent Activity

Portfolio review

  1. Review at least two portfolios and make four comments for each one.
  2.  1st comment should be for a specific work; the 2nd about the organization of the portfolio; 3rd about the amount of work included; 4th about the quality of the work at glance

Homework: DO some research about Virgil’s Aeneid, in particular about Book 2 of teh epic. Bring in some notes to share with the class tomorrow.


Final Essay Assignment based on Iliad by Homer

As Pope points out that there are many interesting characters portrayed in the epic and each of whom has his or her own unique characteristics. Some of them are portrayed as heroes and some villains. There are gods and goddesses that play various roles in controlling the lives of the mortals. In other words, mortals and immortals are intertwined in a way that they are inseparable. The story centers on the Trojan war but many other themes are prevalent as well such as friendship, family, power struggle, gender roles, horror of war, glorification of war, love and revenge, fate, rituals, death, etc.

Based on the epic Iliad, write an analytical essay in which you can focus on a character, theme, a ritual ( burial or praying) )or a specific literary device and its contributions to the development of a theme. You can also focus on a specific scene and discuss how it helps reveal a theme or a symbol such as the Shield of Achilles.

On the Shield of Achilles ( you need to read book 18)

Homer’s description of Achilles’ shield is as fabulous a piece of art as the shield itself.  Using a pattern of images—concrete representations of sensory experiences and abstractions—Homer brings the scenes on the shield to life.  He endows the people in the scenes with motion, sound, thought, speech, and action.  Contrasting scenes of peace and war, country and city, sowing and harvesting, and dancing and working reflect the intense joy and utter pathos of life as Homer’s audience knew it.  Ultimately, the images on the shield form a coherent pattern of human reality.

 Remarkably, the shield contains the entire cosmos, or ordered universe.  The outer circle is the River Ocean, the boundary of the world.  Within the boundary are planets and constellations that form an essential part of the daily life of people who till the soil and live by the seasons.  Agriculture, harvest festivals, and marriage rites find their place in the shield.  Two cities, one at war and one enjoying peace represent all the major aspects of life in The Iliad—the heroic and tragic reality of war and the relieving calm of peacetime.  In fact, Achilles’ shield is a microcosm of The Iliad and of Homer’s world.

In his description of Achilles’ shield, Homer’s imagery captures the complex world of The Iliad.  The marriage ceremonies and harvest festivals of one of the cities of the shield represent the joyous side of life, while the city beleaguered by two armies contain images of the pathos of war.

How are images of violence on the shield balanced by images of plowing and harvesting?

On Fate

Fate is a critical issue in Greek culture and in The Iliad.  What role do Achilles’ personal characteristics play in bringing about his fate?

 Hephaestus says that he wishes that he could forge a shield that could protect Achilles from his fate.  Based upon your understanding of Greek culture and your reading of The Iliad so far, is it ever possible for human beings to escape their fate?  Explain and support your thinking.

Debate:  Both Hector and Achilles make a conscious decision to confront death, which makes them heroic in the eyes of the ancient Greeks.  Does modern society consider people who consciously face death heroic?  Explain and support your answer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Iliad Portfolio

In YOUR PORTFOLIO, you will organize the work you have done for he unit in a logical manner. It is preferred you  include as much work  as you have completed  even if they were class notes or annotations.

The only mandatory items are-

  1. preface
  2. Table of contents with section or page number
  3. reflection

For your preface, you will write a poem using as many relevant and appropriate allusions as possible for the epic. The poem can reveal your understanding or reaction to or comments on the epic. There should be at least 10 lines in the poem and if you can write in a heroic couplet format, it’d be quite impressive.

Te reflection should reveal your learning or thought process during the unit-what you have learned, walked away with or struggled with etc. I’d also like to see reflections on close reading,  annotations, making claims, writing summaries etc.

English Portfolio Rubric

Contents/Scores Exceeding Standards
Meeting Standards
Approaching Standards
Below Standards1/D-F
Ideas  Precise and clear Appropriate /clear Indirect/ vague confused
Diction  precise appropriate Basic, inappropriate Incoherent, confusing
Syntax Sound , a variety of Appropriate, some varieties basic inappropriate
Conventions Demonstrate full control with infrequent errors Demonstrate partial control Demonstrate emerging control Demonstrate lack of control
Organization Logical, cohesive,  coherent Acceptable, coherent incoherent No internal structure
Creativity  Display originality Display some originality Basic Lack of originality
Volume of Work  Complete and thorough sufficient appropriate incomplete
Voice  distinctive some basic Lack of voice

Additional Commentaries: _____________________________

Review Lesson

Objectives: Students will discuss the themes implied in Book 23 where Hector is killed by Achilles by identifying the rituals, details of Hector’s death and Achilles’ attitude toward his death.

Aim: How does Hector die? What happens afterwards? Why is Achilles portrayed as a hero in this book for killing Hector?

Do Now: Share your reflections and observations about the portfolios.

Mini Lesson-

In this book, we have a rare glimpse of a wife who mourns for her husband’s death. How is her mourning described? How do Hector’s parents react to their son’s death?

So far in the epic, death has been glorified and except for Achilles’ reaction to his friend, Petroclos’ death. In this book, death is depicted more realistically and seen through the eyes of the family members. Why is the scene special in the epic? What new aspects do we glean through the scene?

Independent Practice-

Group 1: How does Minerva plead for Hector’s death? Why?

Group 2: When does Hector realize his death is near? How does he react to the imminent death?

Group 3: How does Achilles kill Hector? What does he do afterwards with Hector’s body?

Group 4: How do Hector’s parents, Hecuba and Priam react when they see Hector’s body? What does Priam try to do?

Group 5: How does Hector’s wife, Andromache react to her husband’s death? How is her attitude toward war very different from the sense of glorification we know of?

End of the Lesson Assessment: What themes are implied in the book?

Homework: Respond– How is the book unique in a way? What other aspects of the ancient Greek society we can glean from the book? Provide textual evidence.


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