- writing is a process, not an outcome.
- writing is a means of self-exploration.
- writing an argument paper is a way the academic world shares and evolves ideas.
- Being able to read, synthesize, analyze, and evaluate informational texts can lead to a greater, more accurate understanding of a complex topic.
- The effectiveness of argumentative writing relies on the strength of the claims and the supporting details and how effectively the author explains the evidence and establishes a link between the claim and the evidence.
- Writers develop and present arguments and support their claims using evidence and explanation drawn from reliable sources.
- Living alone does not mean feeling lonely but a personal choice of life.
To understand, students will need to consider such questions as….
- What impact does being able to synthesize, analyze, and evaluate informational texts have on person’s understanding of a complex topic?
- How do writers of informational texts use examples and evidence effectively to convince a reader of their claim?
- How can I evaluate claims made in informational texts and reconcile competing claims from multiple sources?
- How is living alone different from being lonely?
- How do people live alone but do not feel lonely?
Reading Informational Texts
- Strategies for reading and comprehending expository argumentative texts
- Strength of an author’s claim and the evidence and reasoning the author uses to support that claim
- Argument Writing
- Components of Academic Argument
- Evidence & Reasoning
- Adhering to the conventions of standard written English
- Terms and relationship between claims and counterclaims
- Determine the central idea of an informational text.
- Formulate the claims that support a position.
- Summarize an author’s argument clearly and coherently.
- Evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of an author’s
- Identify and explain how the author has linked evidence directly to the claims
- Identify limitations of evidence provided by the author to support the claims made.
- Read complex text independently.
OMMON CORE LEARNING STANDARDS:
- RI.9- 10.1: Cite strong and through evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
- RI.9-10.10: By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
- W.9-10.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Explore and inquire into areas of interest to formulate an argument.
- Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
- Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
- Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s)
After reviewing the components of a written argument, as well as domain specific vocabulary, students will be asked to read a text in the sequence independently and write a 2-3 paragraph summary of the text including: the overall topic and why it is relevant, the author’s position, the type of evidence that the author used to support his/her claim, students may also be asked to respond to the text and whether they agree or disagree with the claim either in writing or as a discussion using evidence from the text.
Directions for writing the argument essay on “Artificial Intelligence”
You have read information from several sources, heard from the media about artificial intelligence taking over our life. When you consider what all these different sources say about the virtue or vice of artificial intelligence:
- What are the positive aspects of artificial intelligence?
- What are the negative aspects of artificial intelligence?
Write an essay in which you-
- Explain what’s at stake: why does this issue matter?
- Develop and state your own position on the issue.
- Use counter claims to make clear the oppositional position on the issue
- Use rebuttal to strengthen your claims
- Defend your position with a range of different types of evidence ( from various sources)
- Draw your own conclusions about how the artificial intelligence effects our life.
Objectives: Students will be introduced and understand the important concept of an argument-A position on an important issue, backed up by evidence and careful reasoning.
Aim: What are the building blocks of argument?
Do Now: Describe a situation where you have witnessed or participated in arguments where people have different positions and use evidence to convince one another about an issue.
Part. I Terminology
In order to avoid confusion in discussing argumentation, the following terms will be used throughout this workshop:
Terms in Writing an Argument Essay
- relationship to issue: Relationship to issue can be defined in this context as a person’s particular personal involvement with an issue, given his or her experience, education, occupation, socio-economic geographical status, interests, or other characteristics.
- perspective-how someone understands and views an issue based on his/her current relationship to it and analysis of the issue.
- author’s perspective is like an iceberg, where the author’s particular argument or position is clearly seen, but his or her personal relationship and perspective on the issue may or may not be explicitly revealed in the text. Without this perspective, however, the author’s position would not be possible; the author’s perspective influences how he or she approaches and ultimately defines an issue and eventually a particular position on it.
- position, implications, premise, reasoning, evidence, and chain of reasoning
1.Claim: A statement that focuses on an issue within a broad topic. It is general belief or assertion about this issue and is expressed without support, warrants, or proof of its validity.
Claim: Good pitching is essential for winning the pennant.
Claim: Athletes’ use of steroids adversely affects Baseball.
|Make your own claim-
Claim: Homework is a crucial part of students’ education.
Claim: Good teachers don’t give much homework.
|Make your own claim-
2. Point of view/ stance/position: An argumentative opinion within a document. It reflects the complex personal background of the author and expresses where the speaker stands on a topic at a given time.
Point of view: the Yankees will win the pennant this year.
Point of view: Players who use steroids should be banned for baseball.
|Your point of view :
Point of view: Students should not take after- school jobs.
Point of view: Mr. X is a really poor teacher.
|Your point of view :
Thesis statement: A premise that an author hopes to prove. It is a proposition to be developed and defend in the presentation of the argument.
Thesis statement: The Yankee will win the pennant this year because they have the best starting pitching staff in baseball.
Thesis statement: Players who use steroids should be banned from baseball because these drugs damage the players’ health and give them an advantage over those who do not use steroids.
Thesis statement: After- school jobs reduce the amount of time students can spend on homework, thereby reducing the quality of their academic performance.
Thesis statement: Mr. X is really poor teacher because he gives so much homework that students get discouraged.
Supporting evidence: information that leads the reader to accept the author’s thesis. This information is gathering from a variety of sources and, along with its sources, is provides within the text.
- Rebuttal evidence. Information that challenges the author’s thesis. This information offers an opposing view on the premise and should be addressed in the argument because of its contradictory.
- Analytical argument: An examination and critique of other texts. This type of argument is most common in academic examinations, such as AP, where students have to illustrate their skills in using texts as a basis for response to prompt.
- Persuasive argument: An argument designed to move an audience. This type of argument reflects most “real life” presentations, where the author wants an audience to respond in some manner.
- Conclusion: A summary of the author’s point of view. After the evidence has been weighed and evaluated. This is the author’s final statement on the claim.
Introduce the context for the argument the class will be working on by reading and discussing this passages:
2. Using this introductory passage, introduce students to the key terms they will be using:
- Context: This is information that would help a reader or a listener to understand why an issue matters or what is at stake.
- Claim and counterclaim
- Sources of evidence (primary sources like personal experience, interviews, research data; secondary sources; like summary article, textbooks, etc.)
- Understanding the Building Blocks of Argument
Transfer: Based on your reading, discuss how each element adds to the larger argument. Why is each “building block” important?
- A claim: Surveillance has been widely used to ” seize” information from innocent people in order for the government to collect national or international intelligence to avert national danger, in particular, during a war era.
- Evidence: Supreme Court Approves of Wiretapping 1928; Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 1978
- Connect the evidence: they both point to an war era either during world war I or Cold War; “ Supreme Court Approve” and “ Act” illustrate that surveillance was approved by the Congress as a law during the war era for a specific war-related cause. The 4thAmendment does give permission to the government to use surveillance for a probable cause, in this case, to protect America from being attacked by foreign forces. Therefore, the use of surveillance is justified.
Making a counter claim that refutes the claim you have made based on the same set of facts. We can use the same facts to form a claim and counter claim depending on your position ( purpose) of the argument-
- A counter claim: American government has violated the law by using warrant-free surveillance to incriminate innocent people due to their different political beliefs.
- Evidence: Project SHAMROCK; October 10, 1963 — June 1, 1966 RFK, FBI Wiretap MLK
- –Acknowledge the popular view on the issue ( popular claim): Most people agree that during a war time, the US government should use surveillance to a certain degree to protect people and national security.
- -Point out the logical flaws you see in the claim: If the government uses surveillance to collect information for national security, why does it also try to use the same warrant-free collected information to incriminate people who may have different political beliefs? Dr. King was accused of being a communist because he participated in a few meetings. What is illegally done here is the fact that the government didn’t have the probable cause to investigate Dr. King to begin with. They tried to accuse him based on the information collected for other purposes.
Part I: USING OTHERS’ ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT A POSITION
- Use those arguments as evidence to support your own.
- Write a claim that establishes a supporting argument’s
position and also explains its relevance to your own
- Select one or more arguments to use as “building blocks” for your own argument. This is likely to be an argument(s) that you have
previously evaluated and found to be sound as well as compelling.
- Students write a multi-part evidence-based claim – or adapt a previously written claim about the argument – that establishes what the argument’s position is and why that argument makes sense and is relevant to your own position, citing specific evidence from the argument to support your own argument.
( Affirmative claim) NSA surveillance programs are vital to protect lives. ( Using others arguments to support my claim) Both President Obama and Director Rogers claim that NSA programs such as Prism are constitutional and authorized by large bipartisan majorities in the Congress. They do not violate the rights of American citizens since they are overseen by the Justice Department( Texts 4.1 & 4.3) . (Evidence 1) One of the programs allows the government to collect “limited category of business records” that help identify foreign terrorists. But these records remain anonymous ( no names and content) unless they have been detected to present suspicious linkage to a possible terrorist’s activity. Even then NSA needs to go through duel process to obtain the details of the record ( Evidence 2) Prism is another program that allows the NSA to obtain a court order to access the electronic communications of” suspected foreign terrorists overseas”. If a suspicion is established, the NSA will then pass the information to FBI who also needs to obtain a court order to determine the identity of the phone record. Rogers emphasizes these call record searches are ” regularly audited for compliance by all three branches of government” that ensure no law has been broken or citizens rights violated. ( counter point) President Obama supports the NSA programs even when it means US citizens have to make some sacrifices to let the government do its job to protect their safety, as he puts it: ” You can’t have a hundred percent security and also the have a hundred percent privacy and zero inconvenience.” ( Analysis of Cited Evidence)The NSA programs allow the government to “connect dots between foreign terrorists plotting attacks in the U.S. and in other countries” and prevent any possibility of a national catastrophe. Without them, we may encounter another 9/11 when thousands of people were killed in a terrorists’ act that could have been prevented if the government had gained better intelligence.Without the NSA programs, the government would not be able to understand a full-scaled terrorist’s plan or who might be involved. If we want to be safe, we need to be willing to let the government collect our information. Only those who are linked to a terrorist’s group should worry abut being caught. ( So What)
How to write an effective counter-argument paragraph?
(counter claim) ACLU argues that the NSA programs are flawed and weak, which causes the infringement of American citizens’ privacy. (reason and evidence)The claim is based on the belief that while targeting at foreigners abroad, the NSA also monitors and collect Americans’ communications with those foreign targets and possibly shares them with other U.S. Government agencies and foreign government.( Acknowledging some validity in the counter claim ) In the process of collecting communications that indicate foreign interactions, the NSA has unavoidably collected some data from American citizens whose communications are not with any foreigners but merely include the names of a targeted country or terrorists. But to get intel from or about the terrorists, it is necessary the NSA collect any information that may suggest a link with the terrorists in order to track any trace of them to deter a possible terrorists’ attack. (Evidence 1) As President Obama also acknowledges that metadata is collected from many Americans who are linked to these targets of terrorists but contains no name or content (Text 4.3). It is when the target becomes a suspect of threat that the content of the communications will need to be revealed. (Evidence 2) Even then, FBI will need to get a Federal court warrant to access the information and the court allows warrants under the 4th Amendment, which makes the act totally constitutional(proving the limitation of the counter argument). (Analysis by attacking the premise) The NSA programs may not be perfect in the sense that the collected data is not 100% foreign intelligence but they are effective in catching the terrorists to protect Americans’ lives. Between a slightly “flawed” policy and risks of losing thousands of innocent lives, which one should Americans accept? With the terrorists’ groups spreading globally and no country being a safe zone, it is only necessary that the retained information be shared with foreign countries to avert any domestic or international disaster such as 9/11 where 6000 people died from the terrorists’ attack. In addition, the Act also gives the law enforcement the optimal tools( Text 5.2) to do their job to protect innocent lives, Americans or foreigners alike.
Structure of an Argument Essay
- Use one or two sentences to provide a context for the topic of surveillance.
- Why is the issue of government surveillance important?
- What do some people say about the government surveillance? ( the opposing view)
- State your position.
- State your argument on the issue ( your perspective on government surveillance with reasons)- your perspective should be based on your synthesis of various claims on the issue.
Supporting claim paragraph#1:
- State your supporting claim #1. ( topic sentence)
- State your evidence and reasoning.
- Analyze the evidence you have provided.
- Making a connection between your evidence and claim #1.
- (optional- for those who wish to take a step further) Acknowledging the opposing claim to your claim #1 and argue against it with a brief evidence and reasoning.
- “So What” statement: How does your first supporting paragraph contribute to your thesis ( overall argument in the Intro)
Supporting claim paragraph #2🙁 Repeat the same steps but with a new supporting claim, evidence and reasoning)
Counterclaim paragraph( Body Paragraph #3):
- State your counterclaim.
- State the evidence and reasoning of your counterclaim.
- Argue against the claim by “acknowledging the validity of the counterclaim and then point outing the limitation in the argument”( Reasoning)
- Provide new evidence to support your counter-argument.
- Explain why the new evidence shows how the counterclaim is limited or inaccurate.
- So What Statement: how does the analysis connect to your thesis ( overall argument in the Intro)?
- Restate your argument in different words.
- Point out why the issue of surveillance is important.
- Explain how the issues connects to a universal truth or a larger Constitutional issue.