Unit 3: Argument Unit on Surveillance

Unit 3: Surveillance

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TARGETED STANDARDS:
W.9-10.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
W.9-10.5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
W.9-10.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Formative assessments:

  1. Present analyses and evaluations of two arguments related to the unit’s issue.
  2.  Establish the relevance of one argument’s position and evidence to their own argument.
  3. Respond to a divergent or opposing argument in an appropriate and strategic way.
  4. Cite evidence from both texts to support their analyses and evaluations.
  5. Represent their best thinking and clearest writing.
    These pieces should be evaluated for students’ understanding of the issue, the clarity and relevance of the perspective and position, and their analysis of textual evidence.
  6. Student evaluations of the various arguments using the EBA Checklist should be evaluated for their conceptual understanding and the validity of analysis.

Pacing Calendar for the remaining fall semester of 2016-2017

  • Thur 1/5: 4.2  text letter to Holden -creating an outline
  • Fri. 1/6: Socratic Seminar on 4.1 & 4.2  HW: Read 4.3 and complete ” Evaluating Argument and Evidence Tool”
  • Mon. 1/9: Analyze 4.3 and Discuss TBQs-Using other’s arguments to support a position  HW: Read 4.4 ACLU and complete  ” Evaluating Argument and Evidence Tool”
  • Tue. 1/10 Analyse 4.4 ad Discuss TBQs Practicing ” counterargument technique #1:By acknowledging the argument’s position and the quality of its reasoning, but explaining why one has not found it relevant or compelling.  HW: Prepare for Socratic Seminar on Texts 4.3 & 4.4
  • Wed. 1/11  Socratic Seminar on 4.3 & 4.4 / Practicing ” counterargument technique #2: By noting the limitations of the argument, especially as it applies to one’s own position and response; use Delineating Arguments tool to help explain the various argumentative structures authors employ to strengthen their arguments. HW. Read Text 5.1 and complete  ” Evaluating Argument and Evidence Tool”
  • Thur. 1/12 Practicing ” counterargument technique #3: By countering one or more of the argument’s premises, offering opposing evidence that calls the claims into question; discuss Text 5.1 HW Read Text 5.2 and complete Argument Outline Tool
  • Fri. 1/13: Collect Argument Outline Tool on one of assigned texts;Practicing  counterargument technique #4: By pointing out the argument’s poor reasoning or lack of valid evidence, analyzing and evaluating it as invalid, illogical, or specious; discuss Text 5.2 and in reading teams, students discuss an opposing argument and determine ways in which they might respond to it. HW: Read Text 5.3  & 5.4 and complete an Argument Outline Tool for each text
  • Tue 1/17:  Students individually select an argument that they
    want/need to respond to, and determine which of the strategies is best suited to the argument they will counter and their own positions/arguments.
  • Wed. 1/18 : Students write a multi-part evidence-based claim – or adapt a previously written claim about the
    argument – that establishes what the argument’s position is and then counters that argument using one of the modeled strategies, citing specific evidence from the argument to support their evaluation and response to it.
  • Thur. 1/19: Use one of the samples to see how the arguments might serve as a model for their own writing.  Based on what they now understand about logical approaches and lines of reasoning, students determine how they want to approach the organization of their own argument, based both on
    its nature and their own processes of thinking and writing.
  • Fri: 1/20: Review the claims they have previously written (and potentially develop new claims) to determine how
    they will use them as premises(claims that need to be backed up by evidence and that lead to the position. Claims become premises in the context of developing an argument, that
    defend/support/prove a position) to develop their position. Students determine a potential sequence for their premises and plan a chain of reasoning for their argument.
  • Mon. 1/23  In reading teams, students individually “talk
    through” their organizational plans, using speci8c
    vocabulary and their Organizing Evidence-Based
    Argument tool or Delineating Arguments tool to
    explain:
    ◊ Their statement of the issue;
    ◊ Their chosen perspective and position;
    ◊ Their logical approach and line of reasoning;
    ◊ Each of their premises (by reading their claim
    statements); and
    ◊ The evidence they will use to support their
    claims and substantiate their argument.
  • Students use the Evidence-Based Arguments Checklist
    to discuss and peer review each other’s
    organizational plans. Students should focus on the
    following criteria:
    · “Clarity and Relevance” under section I (Content and
    Analysis)
    · “Reasoning” and “Use of Evidence” under section II
    (Evidence and Reasoning)
    · “Relationships Among Parts” criteria under section
    III (Coherence and Organization).
    · Students adjust, revise, or further develop their
    plans based on criterion-based peer feedback and
    self-reflection.

Unit descriptions:

Literacy – the integrated abilities to read texts closely, to investigate ideas and deepen understanding through research, to make and evaluate evidence-based claims, and to communicate one’s perspective in a reasoned way – is fundamental to participation in civic life. Thus the importance of a literate citizenry was understood and expressed by Thomas Jefferson early in the life of our democratic nation. Today, students face the prospect of participating in a civic life that stretches beyond the boundaries of a
single nation and has become increasingly contentious, characterized by entrenched polarization in response to complex issues. Citizens have access to a glut of information (some of which is nothing more than opinion passed o” as fact) and are often bombarded by bombast rather than engaged in reasoned and
civil debate.

The instructional focus of this unit-

analyzing and writing evidence-based arguments with specifc attention to argumentative perspective, position, claims, evidence and reasoning. Accordingly, the primary alignment of the unit –

  • the targeted CCSS – are RI.1, RI.8 and W.1, W.2 and W.9.
    The sequence of texts and specific instruction emphasize helping students analyze the way different authors’ perspectives and points of view relate to their argumentation.
  •  RI.6 and RI.9 are also targeted standards. In Parts 1-3, students write short pieces analyzing arguments on a societal issue. In Parts 4 and 5, direct instruction supports students in the
    organization, development, revision and production of a significant and original argumentative essay.  W.4 and W.5 become targeted standards:
  • their abilities to engage in text-centered discussions. Thus, SL.1 is also an emerging targeted CCSS as the unit progresses, and takes on a central role in the collaborative process students use in Part 5 for developing and strengthening their writing.
  • As students develop these primary targeted CCSS skill sets, they also practice and use related reading and writing skills from supporting CCSS. Analysis of texts focuses on interpreting key words and phrases (RI.4), determining central ideas (RI.2) and the way they interact over the course of a text (RI.3), as well as the way authors have structured their particular arguments (R.5). The sequence of texts engages students in the analysis of information presented in a variety of media and formats (R.7).

Common Core Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.2
Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.7
Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.8
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.9
Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.5
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1
Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

Unit Sequence

  1. Part 1 introduces students to the concept of evidence-based argumentation in the context of societal issues. Students read and write about a variety of informational texts to build an
    understanding of a particular issue.
  2. Part 2 develops student ability to analyze arguments through direct instruction on a set of terms and close reading skills for delineating argumentation. Students read and analyze several
    arguments associated with the unit’s issue.
  3. Part 3 deepens students’ abilities with arguments, moving them into evaluation. Students begin to synthesize their analysis and evaluation of other arguments into the development of their own
    position.
  4. Part 4 focuses students on identifying and crafting the structure of their own arguments, including their sequence of claims and their supporting evidence.
  5. Part 5 engages students in a collaborative, question-based process to develop and strengthen their argumentative essays. Students work with their teachers and peers to draft, revise and publish their own argumentative essay on the unit’s issue.

In this unit, students will be able to know-

  • terms related to an argument: claim, alternate or counterclaim, premise, warrant, , relationships among claims, counter claims, reasons and evidence
  • textual evidence, explicit meaning and inference drawn from the text
  • central idea and its development over the course of the text
  • author’s point of view or purpose
  • rhetorical devices to advance an point of view
  • various accounts of a subject told in diffident mediums
  • the differences and connections between an argument and specific claims, reasoning and logic fallacies
  • complex ideas, concepts as well as development, organization and style ( task, purpose and audience)
  • Writing process- planing, revising, editing, rewriting
  • elements involved in collaborative discussions

Students will be able to( do)-

  • cite strong evidence and support analysis with evidence
  • determine a central idea and analyze its development
  • determine an author’s point of view
  • analyze how an author uses rhetorical devices to advance the point of view
  • analyze various perspectives of a subject in different mediums
  • delineate and evaluate the aruguement and specific claims in a text
  • introduce precise claims and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims
  • organize evidence to establish a clear relationships among claims
  • write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas
  • develop writing through writing process
  • initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussion

Pacing Calendar

Week 1: Reading Closely for Textual Details
Week 2: : Making Evidence-Based Claims
Week 3: Researching to Deepen Understanding
Week 4: Building Evidence-Based Arguments
Week 5: Socratic Seminar, Peer Review and Revision of the Argument Essay, Debate

Texts for the Unit( See the full list included in the Summative Assessment):

  1. Text 1: The 4th Amendment, US Constitution
  2. Text 2: S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program
  3. Text 3: Cartoon Surveillance Robert Manko
  4. Text 4: Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is
  5. Text 5: Does the government actually understand the 4th Amendment? 

Unit Summative Assessment: Argument Essay

Direction: Closely read each of  texts provided in the unit ( Text sets #2-5) and write a source based argument on the topic of surveillance.

Topic: Has the NSA’S surveillance program violated the 4th Amendment?

Your Task: Carefully read each text  ( at least 5 ) in the sets provided for the unit. Then, using evidence from at least four of the texts, write a well developed argument regarding whether or not the U.S. government’s surveillance program has violated Americans’ privacy protected by the 4th Amendment in regard to its mass data collection. Clearly establish your claim, distinguish your claim from alternate or opposing claims, and use specific, relevant, and sufficient evidence from at least four of the texts to develop your argument. DO not merely summarize each text.

Guidelines:

Be sure to:

  • Establish your claim regarding whether or not the U.S. government’s surveillance program has violated Americans’ privacy protected by the 4th Amendment in regard to its mass data collection.
  • Distinguish your claim from alternate or opposing claims
  • Use specific, relevant, and sufficient evidence from at least three of the texts to develop your argument
  • Identify each source that you reference by text number and line number(s) or graphic (for example: Text 1, line 4 or Text 2, graphic)
  • Organize your ideas in a cohesive and coherent manner
  • Maintain a formal style of writing
  • Follow the conventions of standard written English

Texts:

Text Set #1: Background Informational Texts
1.1 The 4th Amendment, US Constitution George Mason, James Madison 1789 Cornell Law
1.2 Your Digital Trail: Does the 4th Amendment Protect Us? Daniel Zwerdling 10/02/13 National Public Radio
1.3 How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States Joey Carmichael 6/19/2013 Popular Science
1.4 Electronic Surveillance Under Presidents Bush and Obama Masuma Ahuja 6/2013 The Washington Post

Text Set #2: Additional Background Informational Texts- 9/11
2.1 U.S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program Barton Gellman and Laura Poitras 6/6/2013 The Washington Post
2.2 The USA Patriot Act: Preserving Life and Liberty Department of Justice NA Department of Justice
2.3 NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: I don’t want to live in a society that does these sorts of things Glenn Greenwald (interviewer) and Laura Poitras  6/6/2013 YouTube.com Posted by Kevin Gallagher
2.4 President Bush’s remarks at the signing ceremony for the anti terrorism Patriot Act of 2001 George Bush 10/25/2001 The Washington Post

Text Set #3: Political Cartoons
3.1 Cartoon Surveillance Robert Manko” 6/13/2013 The New Yorker
3.2 NSA Surveillance Monte Wolverton 7/31/2013 Cagle Cartoons, Inc

Text Set #4: Seminal Arguments
4.1 Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is Mike Rogers 6/16/2013 Detroit Free Press
4.2 Letter to Attorney General Eric Holder Representative James Sensenbrenner Jr. 9/6/2013 Sensenbrenner.house.gov
4.3 Transcript: Obama’s Remarks on NSA Controversy President Barack Obama 6/7/2013 Wall Street Journal – Washington Wire blog
4.4 How the NSA’s Surveillance Procedures Threaten Americans’ Privacy ACLU 6/21/2013 ACLU

Text Set #5: Additional Arguments
5.1 Does the government actually understand the 4th Amendment?
David Sirota 06/17/2013 Salon
5.2 Debate in the Senate on Patriot Act of October 2001 Russ Feingold & Orrin Hatch 10/25/2001 Yale Law School, Avalon Project
5.3 Statement before Senate Committee on The Surveillance Transparency Act of 2013 Kevin S. Bankston 11/13/2013 The Centre for Democracy and Technology
5.4 Report on Government Information Requests Apple 11/5/2013 Apple

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Day 1

Objectives: Students will be able to apply their close reading skills to understand a societal issue as a context for various perspectives, positions, and arguments.

  • RI.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.9-10.2: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.9-10.3: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
  • W.9-10.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

MATERIALS:

  • Text Sets 1 and 2
  • Guiding Questions Handout
  • Forming EBC Tool
  • TCD Checklist

Agenda

1- INTRODUCING THE UNIT- presents an overview of the unit and its societal issue.
2- EXPLORING THE ISSUE-Students read and analyze a background text to develop an initial understanding of the issue.
3- DEEPENING UNDERSTANDING OF THE ISSUE-Students read and analyze a second background text to expand and deepen their understanding of the issue.
4- QUESTIONING TO REFINE UNDERSTANDING-Students develop text-dependent questions and use them to refine their analysis.
5- WRITING AN EVIDENCE-BASED CLAIM ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE ISSUE-Students develop and write an evidence-based claim about the nature of the issue.

Do Now: What is the appropriate balance between a US citizen’s
right to privacy and the government’s responsibility to protect its citizens?

Mini Lesson:

INTRODUCE ARGUMENTATION
Introduce the central purpose of the unit: to develop, practice, and apply the skills of argumentation in the context of a societal issue by:
1) Understanding the nature of a challenging issue for which there are various perspectives and positions.
2) Understanding and comparing perspectives and arguments on the issue.
3) Developing an evidence-based position on the issue.
4) Developing, sequencing and linking claims as premises in an evidence-based argument for one’s position.
5) Supporting one’s premises with logical reasoning and relevant evidence.
6) Developing an argumentative essay through a series of guided editorial processes.

For any  complex societal issue,   there are many explanations, perspectives, and opinions, not simply two sides of an argument to be debated.  The unit will culminate in a collaborative process for
developing and strengthening an argumentative essay that each student will write on the unit’s societal issue.

  • What doe ” issue” mean?
  • What are some of the societal issues we are facing now?
  •  “How do strategic thinkers discuss and understand challenging issues or problems?” (Brainstorm a list of approaches and skills used by experts who regularly have to propose and support responses to issues or problems.)

For example on the issue of  PRIVACY/SECURITY
The topic area and text set for this unit focuses on the governance of upholding the 4th Amendment, and more specifically on the issues and controversies that surfaced when Eric Snowden blew the whistle on the National Security Agency’s (NSA) domestic surveillance program. The tension that exists between the government’s obligation to protect citizens’ rights as upheld by the US Constitution and its obligation to ensure the same citizens’ security is complex. The point where security and freedom are appropriately balanced is difficult to find and many possible perspectives and positions on this debate exist.

Independent Practice

Read the following scenarios and discuss why surveillance is used? Is the use of surveillance justified? Why or why not? Debate within your group. Provide reasons to support your argument.

Read an opinion page  from the NYTIMES

In the movie “Batman: Dark Knight”, characters Batman and Lucius Fox debate about whether or not to use a mass spy tool on citizens (the cell phone surveillance) in order to disrupt a terrorist plot:

  •  What disagreement do Lucius and Batman have over the use of cell phone surveillance? How is the decision made to use the defense system despite Lucius’ objection? What implications does this decision have in the debate about what is more important – a citizen’s safety or privacy?
  •  the movie “Bourne Identity,” where government agents are able to track down Bourne and his companion Marie, by instantly tapping into information online.
  •  Edward Snowden’s Christmas 2013 message where he warns of a worldwide surveillance system that “a child born today will grow up with no conception of privacy at all.”

Homework: Do research and bring another example in our society that illustrates the conflict between a citizen’s safety or privacy. Read and annotate the 4th Amendment.

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Day 2

Objectives: Students will be able to apply their close reading skills to understand a societal issue as a context for various perspectives, positions, and arguments.

  • RI.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.9-10.2: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.9-10.3: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Agenda

Do Now: Share your response to the prompt in a small group-

  •  What disagreement do Lucius and Batman have over the use of cell phone surveillance? How is the decision made to use the defense system despite Lucius’ objection? What implications does this decision have in the debate about what is more important – a citizen’s safety or privacy?
  •  the movie “Bourne Identity,” where government agents are able to track down Bourne and his companion Marie, by instantly tapping into information online.
  •  Edward Snowden’s Christmas 2013 message where he warns of a worldwide surveillance system that “a child born today will grow up with no conception of privacy at all.”

Mini Lesson

The 4th Amendment deals specifically with the right to privacy, and the NSA surveillance program which is similar to Batman’s surveillance program on Gotham. We will be making connections between this clip and their learning throughout the unit and use it as a stimulus for reading and discussion. It will also support students
as they create their own understanding of the debate and build an evidence-based argument based on their own informed position on the security vs. freedom debate.

  1. Read the 4th amendment independently, annotating and making notes on how it relates to the unit’s problem-based question.
  2. Individually develop explanatory claims about the text’s presentation of the issue( Forming EBC tool can be used).
  3. Compare claims and the evidence they have found to derive and support them.

Questions to Guide your Reading-

TEXT 1.1: “THE 4TH AMENDMENT, US CONSTITUTION”
Author: George Mason, James Madison, (there were several authors, however, these two are credited the most); Source/Publisher: Cornell Law; Date: 1789

Text Notes: As part of the Bill of Rights, the 4th Amendment is a seminal text and serves as a wonderful introduction to this unit’s focus. While brief in words, the amendment’s language and syntax may make the 4th Amendment initially difficult to access for some students. Specifically, teachers may need to cover words
such as “persons, effects, warrants, and probable cause” for students to fully appreciate the text. Read through the text twice, noting important details or words that stand out to you.

Independent Practice

Respond to the Text-Dependent Questions in writing (to drive closer reading and discussion):
1. What specif rights does the 4th Amendment protect?
2. What actions does the 4th Amendment say would be illegal? What actions does the 4th Amendment say
would be legal? How do you know?
3. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Hand in your written responses.

Homework: 

Write a short claim-based synopsis of the Amendment and the information it presents about the nature of the issue or problem, citing specific details and evidence to support your explanatory claim. Note your claims should focus on interpreting what the text says about the nature of the issue, not on the validity of the text’s perspective or position and not on articulating your own, still developing position. Those sorts of claims will come later.

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Day 3

Objectives: Students will be able to contextualize how the surveillance system has evolved int he United States though jig-saw activity.

  • RI.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.9-10.2: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.9-10.3: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Texts: 

  1. Listen to a radio show:   “YOUR DIGITAL TRAIL: DOES THE 4TH AMENDMENT PROTECT US?”
  2. How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael
  3. Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja

Agenda

Do Now:

A.Do you believe you are being watched by the government? Explain your answer and support it with evidence.

B. The Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution provides, “[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”

What are the two most important rights are described in the 4th amendment? Why?

Mini Lesson

Jigsaw Activity

First, in the expert group, become familiar with your text using the guiding questions:

We’ll go over the texts

Group 1: Text 1.YOUR DIGITAL TRAIL: DOES THE 4TH AMENDMENT PROTECT US?”

The author uses a familiar movie, The Bourne Identity, as a backdrop to discuss the implications technology has on government’s ability to conduct surveillance and the resulting privacy concerns. Perhaps of greatest interest, the author states, “since the 1960s and 1970s, the Supreme Court and other courts have issued a series of rulings declaring that the government does not need a search warrant to obtain your personal documents if you have already shared them with somebody else.” The effects of these decisions in the digital age are tremendous, as the author points out. The article does a great job bridging the gap between the difficult language of the amendment to the digital medium most students are more familiar with today.

Complexity Level: At 1160L, this text is less complex than the amendment itself so students can more easily understand the amendment and how it applies to the modern day world.

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion:

1. What line from the 4th Amendment does the author specifically quote in his article?
2. What evidence does the author use to support the legal analysts’ claim that “the world of computers has weakened the Fourth Amendment?”
3. What details from the article best describe the words “persons, houses, papers, and effects” as used in the 4th Amendment?
4. At the end of the 13th paragraph the author writes, “It’s the legal version of the lesson you learned when you were 12 years old: If you don’t want anybody else to read your diary then don’t show it to anybody.” According to the author, how have older laws, when combined with new technology, aided the government in conducting surveillance programs?
5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Be ready to present your responses with students from two other groups

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Group 2: How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael

Source/Publisher: Popular Science; Date: June 19, 2013
Complexity Level: The timeline format chunks text into small sections, making it very accessible for students, particularly if they only focus on reading a few sections of the timeline closely.

Text Notes: This timeline provides students with an introduction and overview of the role surveillance has played throughout American history. The timeline is also meant to communicate to students that Americans conducting surveillance on other Americans is not a new idea. It also shows how specific events and developments throughout history have changed what kinds of surveillance are allowed and not allowed. This text further strengthens the ideas proposed in the previous text about the changing interpretation of
the 4th Amendment over time.

Use the Text-Dependent Questions (to drive closer reading and discussion):

1. What do you notice about how this timeline is structured? Be specific about the details you notice.
2. Using details from the timeline explain what is meant by the word “surveillance” in the title?
3. Why did the author use the adoption of the 4th Amendment as the starting point of this timeline? How do the subsequent examples relate to the amendment?
4. How does the Katz v United States slide clarify what “search and seizure” means?
5. How are the events that have caused the government to expand its surveillance on Americans connected? What patterns do you see?
6. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Be ready to present your responses with students from two other groups

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Group 3: Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja; Source/Publisher: The Washington Post; Date: June 2013
(Complexity Level: The timeline format chunks text into small sections, making it very accessible for students, particularly if they only focus on reading a few sections of the timeline closely.)

Text Notes: This timeline provides students with a focused look at how the government has conducted surveillance under Presidents Bush and Obama, as well as the direct connection that is made between surveillance of Americans and the threat of terrorism. The timeline strengthens students’ background knowledge of the tension that exists between security and privacy.

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion:
1. In what way does the author connect the September 11th attacks to the government’s role in conducting surveillance on American citizens?
2. According to the timeline, what piece of legislation plays the most significant role in government surveillance history?
3. Which events on the timeline represent the shrinking or expanding of government surveillance on US Citizens? What caused the government to shrink or expand their role in conducting surveillance on US citizens?
4. On June 6, 2013, President Obama said, “nobody is listening to your calls.” What then, according to the President, is the government actually looking for?
5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Be ready to present your responses with students from two other groups

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Independent Practice

Now, from the expert groups, each student will join two other students from a different expert group. They will share their expertise on the the text they have studied.

Reflect: What new knowledge have you gained about our surveillance system? How has the knowledge changed your view toward freedom?

Homework: Write a paragraph with your claim on the context of surveillance. How do the sources we have read support or disagree with what’s stated in the 4th Amendment? Use evidence from all three sources to support your claim.

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Day 4

Objectives: Students will be able to generate an effective claim on surveillance and provide a context for the topic  by analyzing different authors’ perspectives and points of view related to their argumentation as well as becoming familiar with related historical facts .

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
    Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written ebc model

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  style and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Accommodation: Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja- The timeline format chunks text into small sections, making it very accessible for students, particularly if they only focus on reading a few sections of the timeline closely.

Key Vocabulary and concepts

  • claim
  • argument
  • context/contextualize
  • synthesize

Agenda

Do Now: Describe in writing a scenario in which you believe surveillance has protected your freedom but violated your rights to privacy. Based on the incident, make a claim about surveillance.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Activity 1:

  1. Task: Make a claim about surveillance based on the 4th Amendment (Text 1a) by focusing on specific words used .
  2. Teacher model : Surveillance in any form for no probable cause is deemed illegal if it violates an individual’s privacy  as  the 4th amendment protects the “right of the people to be secure” in their private home or with  their personal possessions.
  3. Student practice making a claim based on the 4th amendment by focusing on specific words used in the Amendment.
  4. Students present their claim to the class.

Activity 2: 

  1. Task: Make a claim and counter claim about surveillance based on  the same text: How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael(Text 1b)
  2. Teacher model:
  • A pro claim: Surveillance has been widely used to ” seize” information from innocent people in order for the government to collect national or international intelligence to avert national danger, in particular, during a war era.
  • Evidence: Supreme Court Approves of Wiretapping 1928; Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 1978
    ________________________________________
  • A counter claim: American government has violated the law by using warrant-free surveillance to incriminate innocent people due to their different political beliefs.
  • Evidence: Project SHAMROCK; October 10, 1963 — June 1, 1966 RFK, FBI Wiretap MLK
  • Add a context for the claim by using facts from history: With the invention of new technology such as telegram and telephone, it has become much easier for the American government to collect information from  people without their knowledge in the name of national security.

3. Half the class practices making a claim and the other half counter claim in a small group based on text 1b: How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael

Student Independent Practice

Activity 3: 

  • Students in small groups independently produce a claim and counter claim based on the text 1c :Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja; Source/Publisher: The Washington Post; Date: June 2013
  • Students will use a claim rubric to evaluate their own claim and counter claim:

End of the Lesson Assessment:

  • Spot check a few claims and teacher provides feedback.
  • Collect the individual claim and counter claim from each student as well as the evidence they used to support the claim and counter claim.
  • Collect the claim rubrics that the students have used to evaluate their own claims and counter claims.

Homework:

  • Write a well-developed paragraph in which you start with a claim and use at least two pieces evidence to support your claim ;
  • Write a counter-claim paragraph in which you start by acknowledging the opposing argument before you present your counter argument. Support it with evidence.

_______________________________________________

Day 5

Objectives: Students will be able to form an effective claim  and counter claim on surveillance based on an informational text through small group discussion

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
    Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  style and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Accommodation: Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja- The timeline format chunks text into small sections, making it very accessible for students, particularly if they only focus on reading a few sections of the timeline closely.

Key Vocabulary and concepts

  • claim
  • argument
  • context/contextualize
  • synthesize

Do Now: Based on the forming EBC activities, I know very well about __________________; but I’m still struggling  about________________. Pair-share with an elbow partner.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice: 

PART A: Making an EBC 

Task: Make a claim and counter claim about surveillance based on  the same text: How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael(Text 1b)

We’ll look at Forming Evidence-Based Claims worksheet in the packet.

  • Step 1: Notice and Focus: What details stand out the most to you? Pick three most important details as the evidence to form your claim.
  • Step 2: Explain why each detail seems to mean.
  • Step 3: Connect the three details( look for a pattern): what do they share in common? Are ideas  contradictory? Is there something strange about the idea?
  • Step 4: Make a claim based on your analysis. A claim needs to be arguable and evidence-based. It needs to be the inference you have made based on the evidence you have cited.

Teacher model:

  • A claim: Surveillance has been widely used to ” seize” information from innocent people in order for the government to collect national or international intelligence to avert national danger, in particular, during a war era.
  • Evidence: Supreme Court Approves of Wiretapping 1928; Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 1978
  • Connect the evidence: they both point to an war era either during world war I or Cold War; “ Supreme Court Approve” and “ Act” illustrate that surveillance was approved by the Congress as a law during the war era for a specific war-related cause. The 4th Amendment does give permission to the government to use surveillance for a probable cause, in this case, to protect America from being attacked by foreign forces. Therefore, the use of surveillance is justified.
    ________________________________________

Making a counter claim that refutes the claim you  have made based on the same set of facts. We can use the same facts to form a claim and counter claim depending on your position ( purpose) of the argument-

  • A counter claim: American government has violated the law by using warrant-free surveillance to incriminate innocent people due to their different political beliefs.
  • Evidence: Project SHAMROCK; October 10, 1963 — June 1, 1966 RFK, FBI Wiretap MLK
  • Refutation:
  • Acknowledge the popular view on the issue ( popular claim): Most people agree that during a war time, the US government should use surveillance to a certain degree to protect people and national security.
  • -Point out the logical flaws you see in the claim: If the government uses surveillance to collect information for national security, why does it also try to use the same warrant-free collected information to incriminate people who may have different political beliefs? Dr. King was accused of being a communist because he participated in a few meetings. What is illegally done here is the fact that the government didn’t have the probable cause to investigate Dr. King to begin with. They tried to accuse him based on the information collected for other purposes.

Student Independent Practice: 

Groups 1 & 2:

  1. Form a claim and counter claim on How has Surveillance Evolved in the United States? by Joe Carmichael(Text 1b). Use the EBC worksheet for your claims.
  2. Use the EBC Checklist II-Rubric ( page 7 in the packet) to evaluate your claim.
  3. Use the Text-Centered Discussion Checklist to evaluate your role in the group discussion

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion:

1. What do you notice about how this timeline is structured? Be specific about the details you notice.
2. Using details from the timeline explain what is meant by the word “surveillance” in the title?
3. Why did the author use the adoption of the 4th Amendment as the starting point of this timeline? How do the subsequent examples relate to the amendment?
4. How does the Katz v United States slide clarify what “search and seizure” means?
5. How are the events that have caused the government to expand its surveillance on Americans connected? What patterns do you see?
6. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

_________________________________________

Groups 3 & 4: Form a claim and counter claim on Text 1c :Electronics Surveillance under President Bush and Obama by masuma ahuja; Source/Publisher: The Washington Post; Date: June 2013

  1. Form a claim and counter claim. Use the EBC worksheet for your claims.
  2. Use the EBC Checklist II-Rubric ( page 7 in the packet) to evaluate your claim.
  3. Use the Text-Centered Discussion Checklist( group work rubric) to evaluate your role in the group discussion.

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion:
1. In what way does the author connect the September 11th attacks to the government’s role in conducting surveillance on American citizens?
2. According to the timeline, what piece of legislation plays the most significant role in government surveillance history?
3. Which events on the timeline represent the shrinking or expanding of government surveillance on US Citizens? What caused the government to shrink or expand their role in conducting surveillance on US citizens?
4. On June 6, 2013, President Obama said, “nobody is listening to your calls.” What then, according to the President, is the government actually looking for?
5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Each group presents a claim and counter claim to the class. Teacher provides feedback.

Assessment: Collect EBC worksheet and Text-Centered Discussion Checklist on the way out.

Homework: Read and annotate Text 2: S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program. ( Argument Unit handout)

________________________

Day 6

Objectives: Students will be able to form an effective claim  and counter claim on surveillance based on an informational text through small group discussions.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
    Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now: 

In pairs, ( students near the lockers)share a claim and counter claim based on “the history of surveillance; students near the windows share  a claim and counter claim based on electronic surveillance.

Mini Lesson and Guided Practice

We’ll look at Forming Evidence-Based Claims worksheet in the packet.

  • Step 1: Notice and Focus: What details stand out the most to you? Pick three most important details as the evidence to form your claim.
  • Step 2: Explain why each detail seems to mean.
  • Step 3: Connect the three details( look for a pattern): what do they share in common? Are ideas  contradictory? Is there something strange about the idea?
  • Step 4: Make a claim based on your analysis. A claim needs to be arguable and evidence-based. It needs to be the inference you have made based on the evidence you have cited.

Teacher model:

  • A claim: Surveillance has been widely used to ” seize” information from innocent people in order for the government to collect national or international intelligence to avert national danger, in particular, during a war era.
  • Evidence: Supreme Court Approves of Wiretapping 1928; Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 1978
  • Connect the evidence: they both point to an war era either during world war I or Cold War; “ Supreme Court Approve” and “ Act” illustrate that surveillance was approved by the Congress as a law during the war era for a specific war-related cause. The 4th Amendment does give permission to the government to use surveillance for a probable cause, in this case, to protect America from being attacked by foreign forces. Therefore, the use of surveillance is justified.
    ________________________________________

Making a counter claim that refutes the claim you  have made based on the same set of facts. We can use the same facts to form a claim and counter claim depending on your position ( purpose) of the argument-

  • A counter claim: American government has violated the law by using warrant-free surveillance to incriminate innocent people due to their different political beliefs.
  • Evidence: Project SHAMROCK; October 10, 1963 — June 1, 1966 RFK, FBI Wiretap MLK
  • Refutation:
  • Acknowledge the popular view on the issue ( popular claim): Most people agree that during a war time, the US government should use surveillance to a certain degree to protect people and national security.
  • -Point out the logical flaws you see in the claim: If the government uses surveillance to collect information for national security, why does it also try to use the same warrant-free collected information to incriminate people who may have different political beliefs? Dr. King was accused of being a communist because he participated in a few meetings. What is illegally done here is the fact that the government didn’t have the probable cause to investigate Dr. King to begin with. They tried to accuse him based on the information collected for other purposes.

Student Independent Practice

In a small group, revise your claim and counter claim based on the text you worked on yesterday. Write about the claim and counter in a well-developed paragraph respectively.

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion: ( Text: IB)

1. What do you notice about how this timeline is structured? Be specific about the details you notice.
2. Using details from the timeline explain what is meant by the word “surveillance” in the title?
3. Why did the author use the adoption of the 4th Amendment as the starting point of this timeline? How do the subsequent examples relate to the amendment?
4. How does the Katz v United States slide clarify what “search and seizure” means?
5. How are the events that have caused the government to expand its surveillance on Americans connected? What patterns do you see?
6. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

_________________________

Use the Text-Dependent Questions to drive closer reading and discussion:( 1C)
1. In what way does the author connect the September 11th attacks to the government’s role in conducting surveillance on American citizens?
2. According to the timeline, what piece of legislation plays the most significant role in government surveillance history?
3. Which events on the timeline represent the shrinking or expanding of government surveillance on US Citizens? What caused the government to shrink or expand their role in conducting surveillance on US citizens?
4. On June 6, 2013, President Obama said, “nobody is listening to your calls.” What then, according to the President, is the government actually looking for?
5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment:

  1. Revised claim and counter claim based on one of the texts.
  2. At least one well-developed paragraph.

Homework: Read and annotate Text 2: S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program. ( Argument Unit handout)

_________________________

Day 7

Objectives: Students will be able to form an effective claim  and counter claim on surveillance based on an informational text through small group discussions.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
    Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now:  Visit the bulletin board and write down on a post-it one goal you will like to achieve in Dec. Explain briefly why you feel this is very important for you.

Mini Lesson :Teacher model

Writing an Argument Essay about Surveillance

Introduction:  Your claim based on the 4th Amendment

Teacher Model: Surveillance in any form for no probable cause is deemed illegal if it violates an individual’s privacy  as  the 4th amendment protects the “right of the people to be secure” in their private home or with  their personal possessions.

Body Paragraphs:

(1)Claim Paragraph: Surveillance has been widely used to ” seize” information from innocent people in order for the government to collect national or international intelligence to avert national danger, in particular, during a war era. ( context) Text 1b is about how surveillance has evolved in America since 19th century.  (Evidence+ brief analysis) The history reveals in 1928, “Supreme Court approved of wiretapping”, which made it legal for the government to gather information from people to protect national security. Half a century later, in 1978, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 1978 was passed making it legal to gather foreign intelligence during Cold War era. (Connect the evidence to your claim) Both laws were passed during a war era, either during World War I or Cold War. “Supreme Court Approve” and “Act” suggest that surveillance was approved by the Congress as a law during the war era for a specific war-related cause. (Warrant) The 4th Amendment does give permission to the government to use surveillance for a probable cause, in this case, to protect America from being attacked by foreign forces. Therefore, the use of surveillance is justified.

(2) Counter-claim paragraph:

(Acknowledge the popular view on the issue: popular claim): Most people agree that during a war time, the US government should use surveillance to a certain degree to protect people and national security. (counter claim) Yet, when American government uses warrant-free surveillance to incriminate innocent people due to their different political beliefs, it has violated people’s Constitutional rights. (Evidence) For example, in 1963 and 1966, Project SHAMROCK & RFK, FBI wiretapped MLK to find evidence to connect him to the communist party, thus intending to incriminate him without probable cause during McCarthy’s era. (Point out the logical flaws you see in the claim) If the government uses surveillance to collect information for national security, why does it also try to use the same warrant-free collected information to incriminate people who may have different political beliefs? Dr. King was accused of being a communist because he participated in a few meetings. What is illegally done here is the fact that the government didn’t have the probable cause to investigate Dr. King to begin with. They tried to accuse him based on the information collected for other purposes. (Make connection to your counter claim) Therefore, even though it is permissible for the US government to gather warrant-free intelligence to protect national security but it’s a violation of law when they use the collected information to incriminate innocent people.

Homework:

  1. Revise the 3 paragraphs. Due tomorrow with at least with two drafts.
  2. Read and annotate U.S. British intelligence MINING DATA FROM NINE internet companies in broad secret program.

______________________________________

Day 8

Objectives: Students will be able to write a short claim-based synopsis of the text and the information it presents about the nature of the issue and cite specific details and evidence to support their explanatory claim.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.A
    Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

TEXT 2.1: “U.S., BRITISH INTELLIGENCE MINING DATA FROM NINE U.S. INTERNET COMPANIES IN BROAD SECRET PROGRAM”

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #2 includes three texts that can be used to provide additional background information about the security vs. privacy debate including the enactment of the Patriot Act, and the current case involving “whistle-blower” Eric Snowden.

Differentiation: At 1460L, this text measures high due to formal nouns and several acronyms. The text is a newspaper article and is suitable for most 10th grade students. Viewing the video embedded in the article will help support comprehension of the key ideas.
Text Notes : This newspaper article mostly focuses on the secretive, surveillance program run by the National Security Agency and the FBI called PRISM, as well as its equivalent in Britain. As the authors point out, these government agencies obtain digital information directly from well-known companies such as Facebook, Google and Apple. After reading the article, students can watch the video, which is an interview with Barton Gellman, one of the article’s authors. The interview provides a good opportunity to review key information
presented in the article and to access the information in a different medium.

Do Now: What does data mining mean to you? For what purposes can the data be used? Give a specific example.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

At this point in the process, your claims should focus on interpreting what the text says about the nature of the issue, not on the validity of the text’s perspective or position and not on articulating the student’s own, still developing position. Those sorts of claims will come later.

Watch a video and respond:

In the video, Gillman discusses the role of the “source” in providing the authors access to secret information.

  • What explanation does Gellman give for withholding certain information from the public?
  • According to Gellman, why did the source give up this information?

Students write responses to the questions in their notebook and share in a small group later.

Student Independent Practice

In a small group, students will discuss the following text-Dependent Questions and present to the class their responses:

TEXT 2.1: “U.S., BRITISH INTELLIGENCE MINING DATA FROM NINE U.S. INTERNET COMPANIES IN BROAD SECRET PROGRAM”

Text-Dependent Questions (to drive closer reading and discussion):

  1. ( Group 1)The authors point out that in the past the NSA has used relationships with corporate entities in order to conduct its operations [paragraph 2]. How do the authors suggest that the PRISM program is different from these past relationships?
  2. ( Group 2)The authors make the claim that the government has shifted from individual to mass surveillance. What supporting evidence do they provide to substantiate their claim?
  3. ( Group 3)According to the article, how have most private companies (Apple, Twitter, etc.) responded to questions over their relationship with government agencies?
  4. ( Group 4) In the video, Gillman discusses the role of the “source” in providing the authors access to secret information. What explanation does Gellman give for withholding certain information from the public? According to Gellman, why did the source give up this information?
  5. ( Group 5) How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Each group presents to the class their response and hand in for group work credit by the end of the period.

Homework: Read and annotate TEXT 2.2: “THE USA PATRIOT ACT: PRESERVING LIFE AND LIBERTY”.

________________________________________________

Day 9

Objectives: Students will be able to write a short claim-based synopsis of the text and the information it presents about surveillance and cite specific details and evidence to support their explanatory claim.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineation Tool

TEXT 2.1: “U.S., BRITISH INTELLIGENCE MINING DATA FROM NINE U.S. INTERNET COMPANIES IN BROAD SECRET PROGRAM”

TEXT 2.2:THE USA PATRIOT ACT: PRESERVING LIFE AND LIBERTY”(Author/Source/Publisher: Department of Justice; Date: NA)

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #2 includes three texts that can be used to provide additional background information about the security vs. privacy debate including the enactment of the Patriot Act, and the current case involving “whistle-blower” Eric Snowden.

Differentiation: The text is a newspaper article and is suitable for most 10th grade students. Viewing the video embedded in the article will help support comprehension of the key ideas.
Text Notes : This newspaper article mostly focuses on the secretive, surveillance program run by the National Security Agency and the FBI called PRISM, as well as its equivalent in Britain. As the authors point out, these government agencies obtain digital information directly from well-known companies such as Facebook, Google and Apple. After reading the article, students can watch the video, which is an interview with Barton Gellman, one of the article’s authors. The interview provides a good opportunity to review key information
presented in the article and to access the information in a different medium.

Do Now: Recall the key information you have gained from ” U.S., BRITISH INTELLIGENCE MINING DATA FROM NINE U.S. INTERNET COMPANIES IN BROAD SECRET PROGRAM” concerning surveillance. What new insight have you gained on the issue of surveillance? Write a few sentences to express you new understanding of the topic and support it with evidence. Pair share.

Mini Lesson and Guided Practice

  1. Watch a video and respond:

In the video, Gellman discusses the role of the “source” in providing the authors access to secret information.

  • What explanation does Gellman give for withholding certain information from the public?
  • According to Gellman, why did the source give up this information?

2. Share your group responses based on the text 2.1.

3. Watch a video (Text 2.3 )NSA WHISTLEBLOWER EDWARD SNOWDEN: ‘I DON’T WANT TO LIVE IN A SOCIETY THAT DOES THESE SORTS OF THINGS and respond to the questions-

1. Throughout the interview, Snowden comes back to the public’s right to decide on what is right for them. What does he mean by this? How does this run counter to the government’s e”orts?
2. In the interview, Snowden claims, “I, sitting at my desk, certainly had the authority to target anyone.” If true, how would this run counter to the 4th Amendment?
3. According to Snowden, where does “probable cause,” as stated in the 4th Amendment, figure in the government’s surveillance program?
4. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Student Independent Practice:

Share your responses to questions based on Text 2.2 “THE USA PATRIOT ACT: PRESERVING LIFE AND LIBERTY”:

Text Notes: This text, published by the Department of Justice, provides students background knowledge on the Patriot Act. This is our first chance to learn about the Act in more depth. In the post 9/11 scenario, the Patriot Act was and continues to be one of the most crucial and controversial pieces of government legislation in history. As the website claims, this Act greatly enhances the government’s ability to fight terrorism, describing specifically how specific components improves counter-terrorism efforts.

Text-Dependent Questions (to drive closer reading and discussion):
1. In the first paragraph, what effect does the quote from Senator Joe Biden have on the text’s message?
2. Point number 3 claims, “the Patriot Act updated the law to reSect new technologies and new threats.” What evidence is given to back up the claim? How does this evidence relate to what you have learned about the 4th Amendment?
3. How does the evidence provided in this text inSuence your understanding of the issue of government
surveillance and personal privacy?

Assessment: Based on the video clips and Patriot Act, make a claim about US surveillance.

Homework: Write a paragraph about each text we have read so far ( Text 2.1, Text 2.2 and Text 2.3). In each paragraph describe the most important information each text provides for you and explain how the formation helps you gain an overall understanding about surveillance in the U.S.

Homework for Honor 10the Grade Due on Monday 12/19/2016

For each text you read, you’ll-

  1. Answer the text-based questions ( see Questions handout)
  2. Write a critical summary for each text( what’s the text about; how the author develops his point, etc)
  3. Based on this particular text, what new information do you gain about surveillance issue?
  4. Based on this text, what claim can you make about the surveillance issue?

Texts:

___________________________________________

Day 10

Objectives: Students will be able to write a short claim-based synopsis of the text and the information it presents about surveillance and cite specific details and evidence to support their explanatory claim.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

Text 2.3 NSA WHISTLEBLOWER EDWARD SNOWDEN: ‘I DON’T WANT TO LIVE IN A SOCIETY THAT DOES THESE SORTS OF THINGS

TEXT 2.2:THE USA PATRIOT ACT: PRESERVING LIFE AND LIBERTY”(Author/Source/Publisher: Department of Justice; Date: NA)

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #2 includes three texts that can be used to provide additional background information about the security vs. privacy debate including the enactment of the Patriot Act, and the current case involving “whistle-blower” Eric Snowden.

Do Now: Recall the key information you have gained from ” U.S., BRITISH INTELLIGENCE MINING DATA FROM NINE U.S. INTERNET COMPANIES IN BROAD SECRET PROGRAM” concerning surveillance. What new insight have you gained on the issue of surveillance? Write a few sentences to express you new understanding of the topic and support it with evidence. Pair share.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

 

Watch a video (Text 2.3 )NSA WHISTLEBLOWER EDWARD SNOWDEN: ‘I DON’T WANT TO LIVE IN A SOCIETY THAT DOES THESE SORTS OF THINGS and respond to the questions-

1. Throughout the interview, Snowden comes back to the public’s right to decide on what is right for them. What does he mean by this? How does this run counter to the government’s e”orts?
2. In the interview, Snowden claims, “I, sitting at my desk, certainly had the authority to target anyone.” If true, how would this run counter to the 4th Amendment?
3. According to Snowden, where does “probable cause,” as stated in the 4th Amendment, figure in the government’s surveillance program?
4. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Student Independent Practice:

  • Share your summary of and  responses to questions based on Text 2.2 “THE USA PATRIOT ACT: PRESERVING LIFE AND LIBERTY”.
  • Generate at least one question based on the text that you believe that is crucial to the understanding of the topic.
  • Discuss the answer to your question and explain why it is important.

Differentiation:

Text Notes: This text, published by the Department of Justice, provides students background knowledge on the Patriot Act. This is our first chance to learn about the Act in more depth. In the post 9/11 scenario, the Patriot Act was and continues to be one of the most crucial and controversial pieces of government legislation in history. As the website claims, this Act greatly enhances the government’s ability to fight terrorism, describing specifically how specific components improves counter-terrorism efforts.

Text-Dependent Questions :
1. In the first paragraph, what effect does the quote from Senator Joe Biden have on the text’s message?
2. Point number 3 claims, “the Patriot Act updated the law to reflect new technologies and new threats.” What evidence is given to back up the claim? How does this evidence relate to what you have learned about the 4th Amendment?
3. How does the evidence provided in this text inSuence your understanding of the issue of government
surveillance and personal privacy?

Writing Assessment: Based on the discussion on video clip and Patriot Act, write a paragraph about your new understanding on the issue of US surveillance. Be sure to include a claim and supporting evidence.

Homework:

__________________________

Day 11

Objectives:

  1. Students will be able to apply skills they have developed in a Reading Closely for Textual Details unit to frame their
    own, more focused questions about the issue and texts and use these questions to drive a deeper reading of the texts.
  2. Students will be able to develop a synthesis claim about the nature of the surveillance issue that they will expand and revise when drafting their final argument.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • laptops with online access
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #3: Political Cartoons

Mini Less with Guided Practices

Security vs. Privacy debate in the US

“Public Opinion Shifts on Security-Liberty Balance” compares a July 2013 poll to a January 2010 poll which shows there has been a shift in public opinion indicating more Americans now believe the government has gone too far in restricting civil liberties regarding privacy. The CNN article provides multiple op-eds on the issue of privacy vs. security. Finally, the text of the Verizon Court order from
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court provides students with a primary source document that directly relates to information they read in the Gellman article. Specifically, the document shows exactly what kind of information the government asks Verizon to release about its customers and the kind of secrecy under which the order was given.

Review the guided questions based on each previous text. Students work in reading teams to develop a set of more focused, text-based questions to drive further inquiry into the issue.

What’s an explanatory claim? What’s a synthesis claim?

What techniques can we use to ask focused questions that drive further inquiry into the issue of surveillance?

How do we use deep questions to develop a claim?

We’ll develop explanatory claims about one or more of these
additional texts, then “jigsaw” into new groups and share what you have learned. In this way, we all can become familiar with a wider range of background texts.

Independent Practice

Students will work on one of the provided texts on surveillance in a small group. They will-

  1. Develop focused questions that drive further inquiry into the issue of surveillance.
  2. develop explanatory claims about one or more of these
    additional texts,
  3. then “jigsaw” into new groups and share what you have learned.

Assessment: Make a group synthesis claim on  what they have learned about the nature of the surveillance.

Homework: Synthesizes what you have learned about the nature of surveillance.  Present your current way of understanding the issue and its components.  Cites evidence from multiple sources that explains and substantiates your perspective. Represent your best thinking and clearest writing.

______________________

Day 12

Objectives: Students will be able to

  • develop an understanding of how perspective helps shape an author’s position and argument.
  • write their own claims in reading teams on how the perspective of Text #4.1’s author influences his or her position on the issue.

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #4

  1. Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is Mike Rogers 6/16/2013 Detroit Free Press
  2. Letter to Attorney General Eric Holder Representative James
    Sensenbrenner Jr. 9/6/2013 Sensenbrenner.house.gov
  3. Transcript: Obama’s Remarks on NSAControversyPresident Barack Obama
  4. How the NSA’s Surveillance Procedures Threaten Americans’ Privacy ACLU 6/21/2013 ACLU

Terms in Writing an Argument Essay

  • issue
  • relationship to issue: Relationship to issue can be defined in this context as a person’s particular personal involvement with an issue, given his or her experience, education, occupation, socio-economic geographical status, interests, or other characteristics.
  • perspective-how someone understands and views an issue based on his/her current relationship to it and analysis of the issue.
  • author’s perspective is like  an iceberg, where the author’s particular argument or position is clearly seen, but his or her personal relationship and perspective on the issue may or may not be explicitly revealed in the text. Without this perspective, however, the author’s position would not be possible; the author’s perspective influences how he or she approaches and ultimately defines an issue and eventually a particular position on it.
  • position, implications, premise, reasoning, evidence, and chain of reasoning

Do Now:  Text Set #3: Political Cartoons

What view on surveillance does each cartoon reveal? How? Describe it.

Tips on how to interpret a cartoon:

  • use  details to determine the point or commentary communicated by the cartoon, and thus determine its position (which may or may not be stated).
  • a cartoon artist presents visual details as evidence that establishes and supports the cartoon’s position.
  • presentation techniques,
  •  text that may be presented with the cartoon.
  • it communicates political commentary through its imagery and words.

Mini Lesson

Socratic discussion on:

  1. How the writers’ personal relationship to the issue influences their perspective AND
  2. How their perspective influences their understanding of the issue and their position.

For example, what’s Snowden’s perspectives on surveillance?  How is his position on the issue directly influenced by his relationship to it?

Student Independent Practice

Read the text 4/1 –Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is Mike Rogers 6/16/2013 Detroit Free Press

Step 1: Students first read the argument independently, considering general guiding questions such as: “What is the author thinking and saying about the issue or problem?”

Step 2: In reading teams, students discuss the text-based questions and search for relevant details, highlighting and labeling their text where they identify the various elements of argumentation.

Step 3: Use a blank Delineating Arguments tool to structure and capture the delineation of the author’s argument. Each team will work on one or more of the elements of the argument (position, premises, reasoning, evidence) and prepare a short presentation for the class about what they have discovered through their analysis of the argument. Each team will need to cite specific evidence from the text that supports their analysis.

Step 4: As a class, we’ll  delineate the article’s argument by identifying its position, premises, reasoning, and evidence.

Study Questions based on Text 4.1 : Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is Mike Rogers 6/16/2013 Detroit Free Press

1. What information does Rogers immediately reveal in his article? How are these details important to his argument?
2. Which sentences – taken together – best communicate Rogers’ position on government surveillance?
3. Rogers lays out a string of claims in paragraph 2. Where does he present evidence to back these claims up? For which does he provide no evidence?
4. In their article in the Washington Post, Gellman and Poitras say, “Late last year, when critics in Congress sought changes in the FISA Amendments Act, the only lawmakers who knew about PRISM were bound by oaths of office to hold their tongues.” What evidence does Rogers provide that refutes their claim?
5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy ?

Assessment: Each group will hand in the completed tool after presentation.

Homework: Complete the “Argument Outline Tool” based on Text 4.1 by Mike Roger.

__________________________________________

Day 13

Objectives: Students will be able to

  • develop an understanding of how perspective helps shape an author’s position and argument.
  • write their own claims in reading teams on how the perspective of Text #4.2’s author influences his or her position on the issue.

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Text Set #4

  1. Mike Rogers: NSA surveillance program isn’t the scandal you think it is Mike Rogers 6/16/2013 Detroit Free Press
  2. Letter to Attorney General Eric Holder Representative James
    Sensenbrenner Jr. 9/6/2013 Sensenbrenner.house.gov
  3. Transcript: Obama’s Remarks on NSAControversyPresident Barack Obama
  4. How the NSA’s Surveillance Procedures Threaten Americans’ Privacy ACLU 6/21/2013 ACLU

Terms in Writing an Argument Essay

  • issue
  • relationship to issue: Relationship to issue can be defined in this context as a person’s particular personal involvement with an issue, given his or her experience, education, occupation, socio-economic geographical status, interests, or other characteristics.
  • perspective-how someone understands and views an issue based on his/her current relationship to it and analysis of the issue.
  • author’s perspective is like  an iceberg, where the author’s particular argument or position is clearly seen, but his or her personal relationship and perspective on the issue may or may not be explicitly revealed in the text. Without this perspective, however, the author’s position would not be possible; the author’s perspective influences how he or she approaches and ultimately defines an issue and eventually a particular position on it.
  • position, implications, premise, reasoning, evidence, and chain of reasoning

Do Now: Use information from your personal Delineating Tool to complete a group tool. Present it to the class.

Mini Lesson:

Text Set 4 present  different perspectives, positions. Share  the argument and consider general guiding questions such as:

  1. “What is the author thinking and saying about the issue or problem?”
  2. “What do the author’s language and approach suggest about his/her relationship to and perspective on the issue or problem?”
  3. “How does the author’s relationship to the issue help shape his/
    her position?”

Teacher will model how to use the ” Argument Outline Tool” to read closely the text and understand the author’s argument.

Teacher will model-develop an evidence-based claim comparing how the authors have used one of the elements of argumentation differently, as influenced by their perspectives( 4.1 vs. 4.2).

Student Independent Practice

Read Text set 4.2 Letter to Attorney General Eric Holder Representative James

Step 1:  In reading teams, students discuss the text-based questions and search for relevant details, highlighting and annotating them.

Text-Dependent Questions based on 4.2 :

  • To what interpretation does Sensenbrenner refer to in the 8rst paragraph? In reality, what does this interpretation look like?
  •  What unstated reasoning does Sensenbrenner use to connect the last sentence of the first paragraph to the details provided in the following paragraph?
  • According to Sensenbrenner, what are the “implications” of the government’s interpretation of Section 215?
  • How does does Sensenbrenner’s use of the word “apparently” in the last sentence of paragraph 4 of help you understand his position? How does Sensenbrenner use logic to come to his opinion?
  •  How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Step 2: Students will use a Delineating Arguments tool to delineate the author’s argument.

Step 3: Discuss as a class the author’s position, argument,and perspective.

Step 4: Students individually develop their own comparative EBCs(using an Organizing EBC tool) based on Delineating tool for both Text 1 and Text 2.

Assessment: Present in the reading group their own comparative EBC.

Homework: Complete an Argument Outline Tool based on Text 4.2 (Letter to Attorney General Eric Holder Representative James).

_______________________________________________

Day 14

Objectives: Students will be able to gain new perspectives about the issue of government surveillance through a Socratic seminar

CCSS

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Resource: About Socratic seminar

Concepts and norms about Socratic Seminar

  •  debate (persuasion, prepared rebuttals, clear sides)
  • discussion (inquiry, responses that grow from the thoughts of others, communal spirit).
  • seminars ask students to keep focusing back on the text
  • the process of gaining capacity for inquiring into text is more important than “getting it right” at any particular point
  • Generate as many open-ended questions as possible, aiming for questions whose value lies in their exploration, not their answer
  • held accountable for the norms they agree upon.
  • relying on other students to respectfully challenge their peers’ interpretations or offer alternative views.
  • student-centered inquiry to their success
  • Students assess their understanding of the text through writing

Do Now: Review the concept and norms about Socratic seminar. What are the most important elements in  Socratic seminar?

Mini Lesson Guided Practice

Introducing the Socratic Seminar Norms
• Don’t raise hands
• Listen carefully
• Address one another respectfully
• Base any opinions on the text
Additional norms might include
• Address comments to the group (no side conversations)
• Use sensitivity to take turns and not interrupt others
• Monitor ‘air time’
• Be courageous in presenting your own thoughts and reasoning, but be flexible and willing to
change your mind in the face of new and compelling evidence

During the Seminar-

  • address each other and not the teacher alone!
    •(leader) Pose the key question.
    • (participants) relate their statements to particular passages,  clarify, and elaborate.
    • move the discussion along.
    • (leader) summarize the main points made in the discussion, either at a quiet point or towards the end of the discussion.

Socratic Seminar

Key Question: What’s the one point that you strongly agree with the author? Why?

Discussion Questions:

  1. To what interpretation does Sensenbrenner refer to in the first paragraph? In reality, what does this interpretation look like?
  2. What unstated reasoning does Sensenbrenner use to connect the last sentence of the first paragraph to the details provided in the following paragraph?
  3. According to Sensenbrenner, what are the “implications” of the government’s interpretation of Section 215?
  4. How does  Sensenbrenner’s use of the word “apparently” in the last sentence of paragraph 4 of help you understand his position? How does Sensenbrenner use logic to come to his opinion?
  5. How does the evidence provided in this text influence your understanding of the issue of government surveillance and personal privacy?

Closing Question: What is the author’s  perspective?  Do you agree with the author?

Assessment: Take one claim from 4.1 text by Mike Rogers, which you disagree with,  and use the premises and evidence provided by Mr. Sensenbrenner in text 4.2 to  counter argue.

Homework: Read 4.3 and complete ” Evaluating Argument and Evidence Tool”; prepare questions for a Socratic Seminar.

_____________________________________

Day 15

Objectives: Students will be able to develop a position by using others’ arguments.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now: Why is it necessary for us to discuss the issue?  What do you think the majority of Americans feel about surveillance vs. privacy issue? Reflecting on the texts we have discussed ( including the video clips), where do you now stand on the issue ? Do you agree with the majority or disagree? Refer to a couple of claims or arguments from the texts to support your position. Your perspective on the issue can be the combination of various claims by others.

Pair share.

Your response for ” Do Now” is the Introduction of your argument essay. 

Teacher model:  As the world becomes infested with terrorists attacks, to protect American people, the U.S government is determined to deter any future attack in the American soil by strengthening its national security measures such as collecting metadata that includes all kinds of records and identify any link to terrorists. Some Americans including some law makers believe  that the government may have broken the law or violated the 4th Amendment by collecting data from all Americans. Yet, with the imminent safety threats, the US. government needs to collect massive records in order to find any link to the national threat and it does so legally and  with the respect to Americans’ privacy to a great extent. Without the government surveilance,  our lives could all be in danger.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Part I: USING OTHERS’ ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT A POSITION

  1. Use those arguments as evidence to support your own.
  2. Write a claim that establishes a supporting argument’s
    position and also explains its relevance to your own
    position.
  3. Select one or more arguments to use as “building blocks” for your own argument. This is likely to be an argument(s) that you have
    previously evaluated and found to be sound as well as compelling.
  4. Students write a multi-part evidence-based claim – or adapt a previously written claim about the argument – that establishes what the argument’s position is and why that argument makes sense and is relevant to your own position, citing specific evidence from the argument  to support your own argument.

Guided Practice:

( Affirmative claim) NSA surveillance programs are vital to protect lives. ( Using others arguments to support my claim) Both President Obama and Director Rogers claim that NSA programs such as Prism are constitutional and authorized by large bipartisan majorities in the Congress. They do not violate the rights of American citizens since they are overseen by the Justice Department( Texts 4.1 & 4.3) . (Evidence 1) One of the programs allows the government to collect “limited category of business records” that help identify foreign terrorists. But these records remain anonymous ( no names and content) unless they have been detected to present suspicious linkage to a possible terrorist’s activity. Even then NSA needs to go through duel process to obtain the details of the record ( Evidence 2) Prism is another program that allows the NSA to obtain a court order to access the electronic communications of” suspected foreign terrorists overseas”. If a suspicion is established, the NSA will then pass the information to FBI who also needs to obtain a court order to determine the identity of the phone record. Rogers emphasizes these call record searches are ” regularly audited for compliance by all three branches of government” that ensure no law has been broken or citizens rights violated. ( counter point) President Obama supports the NSA programs even when it means US citizens have to make some sacrifices to let the government do its job to protect their safety, as he puts it: ” You can’t have a hundred percent security and also the have a hundred percent privacy and zero inconvenience.”  ( Analysis of Cited Evidence)The NSA programs allow the government to “connect dots between foreign terrorists plotting attacks in the U.S. and in other countries” and prevent any possibility of a national catastrophe.  Without them, we may encounter another 9/11 when thousands of people were killed in a terrorists’ act that could have been prevented if the government had gained better intelligence.Without the NSA programs, the government would not be able to understand a full-scaled terrorist’s plan or who might be involved. If we want to be safe, we need to be willing to let the government collect our information. Only those who are linked to a terrorist’s group should worry abut being caught. ( So What)

Student Independent Practice

In a reading group of 3-4, students share their position and an affirmative claim. They will also help each other identify others’ arguments to support his/her position.

HW:

  1. Read 4.4 ACLU and complete  ” Evaluating Argument and Evidence Tool”;
  2. Each group prepares 5 questions using handouts ( pages 164, 165 and 166)  for the Socratic Seminar based on one of the texts ( Text 4.3 or Text 4.4)
  3. Complete the introduction and first affirmative paragraph ( that supports your position directly by using others’ arguments).

____________________________________________________

Day 16

Objectives: Students will be able to apply a counterargument technique of acknowledging the argument’s position and the quality of its reasoning to develop a refutational paragraph.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now: Identify one argument in 4.4 ACLU,with which you disagree, as well  the reasons and evidence the author uses to support the argument. Pair-share.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

How to write an effective counter-argument paragraph?

Teacher model-

(counter claim) ACLU argues that the NSA programs are flawed and weak, which causes the infringement of American citizens’ privacy. (reason and evidence)The claim is based on the belief that while targeting at foreigners abroad, the NSA also monitors and collect Americans’ communications with those foreign targets and possibly shares them with other U.S. Government agencies and foreign government.( Acknowledging some validity in the counter claim ) In the process of collecting communications that indicate foreign interactions, the NSA has unavoidably collected some data from American citizens whose communications are not with any foreigners but merely include the names of a targeted country or terrorists. But to get intel from or about the terrorists, it is necessary the NSA collect any information that may suggest a link with the terrorists in order to track any trace of them to deter a possible terrorists’ attack. (Evidence 1) As President Obama also acknowledges that metadata is collected from many Americans who are linked to these targets of terrorists but contains no name or content (Text 4.3). It is when the target becomes a suspect of threat that the content of the communications will need to be revealed.  (Evidence 2) Even then, FBI will need to get a Federal court warrant to access the information and the court allows warrants under the 4th Amendment, which makes the act totally constitutional(proving the limitation of the counter argument). (Analysis by attacking the premise) The NSA programs may not be perfect in the sense that the collected data is not 100% foreign intelligence but they are effective in catching the terrorists to protect Americans’ lives. Between a slightly “flawed” policy and risks of losing thousands of innocent lives, which one should Americans accept? With the terrorists’ groups spreading globally and no country being a safe zone,  it is only necessary that the retained information be shared with foreign countries to avert any domestic or international disaster such as 9/11 where 6000 people died from the terrorists’ attack. In addition, the Act also gives the law enforcement the optimal tools( Text 5.2) to do their job to protect innocent lives, Americans or foreigners alike.

_____________________________

Student Independent Practice

( counter claim) ACLU  argues that the NSA uses the term ” foreign intelligence information” in the Act that give the government right to conduct surveillance too broadly or even over reaching.

How can we counter argue this claim?

In pairs or small groups of three, identify a counter claim and its evidence or reason. Find your counter-argument evidence to refute the counter claim.

Assessment: Select groups to share with the class. Teacher provides feedback.

HW: Revise the counter-claim paragraph; Prepare for Socratic Seminar on Texts 4.3 & 4.4

________________________________

Day 17

Objectives: Students will be able to apply a counterargument technique of noting the limitations of the argument, especially as it applies to one’s own position and response to develop a refutational paragraph.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now: Identify a counter claim that you  have questions about. You may like to question the word choice used in the claim or some ideas may have limited your understanding. In other words, you may be able to stretch the interpretation of an idea.  Circle the words or phase you want to question. Which idea may have limited meaning? Pair share.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

  1. In the model counter-argument paragraph, how doe the author change the limitations of the word choice ” flawed” and “infringement”?

Teacher model-

(counter claim) ACLU argues that the NSA programs are flawed and weak, which causes the infringement of American citizens’ privacy. (reason and evidence)The claim is based on the belief that while targeting at foreigners abroad, the NSA also monitors and collect Americans’ communications with those foreign targets and possibly shares them with other U.S. Government agencies and foreign government.( Acknowledging some validity in the counter claim ) In the process of collecting communications that indicate foreign interactions, the NSA has unavoidably collected some data from American citizens whose communications are not with any foreigners but merely include the names of a targeted country or terrorists. But to get intel from or about the terrorists, it is necessary the NSA collect any information that may suggest a link with the terrorists in order to track any trace of them to deter a possible terrorists’ attack. (Evidence 1) As President Obama also acknowledges that metadata is collected from many Americans who are linked to these targets of terrorists but contains no name or content (Text 4.3). It is when the target becomes a suspect of threat that the content of the communications will need to be revealed.  (Evidence 2) Even then, FBI will need to get a Federal court warrant to access the information and the court allows warrants under the 4th Amendment, which makes the act totally constitutional(proving the limitation of the counter argument). (Analysis by attacking the premise) The NSA programs may not be perfect in the sense that the collected data is not 100% foreign intelligence but they are effective in catching the terrorists to protect Americans’ lives. Between a slightly “flawed” policy and risks of losing thousands of innocent lives, which one should Americans accept? With the terrorists’ groups spreading globally and no country being a safe zone,  it is only necessary that the retained information be shared with foreign countries to avert any domestic or international disaster such as 9/11 where 6000 people died from the terrorists’ attack. In addition, the Act also gives the law enforcement the optimal tools( Text 5.2) to do their job to protect innocent lives, Americans or foreigners alike.

Independent Practice

Argument Outline Tool

Question: Does the government actually understand the 4th Amendment?

Central Claim: The government does not have a legitimate on-going  “probable cause” ,as specifically stated in the 4th Amendment,  to conduct mass surveillance.

Supporting Claim: The NSA can not mass collect metadata with no warrants whatsoeverWhen the NSA goes to the FISA court to get the kind of warrant for metadata it obtained in the recently disclosed Verizon case, the agency is implicitly acknowledging that such surveillance requires judicial oversight. In such an acknowledgement, the NSA is admitting that even with an outdated 1979 Supreme Court ruling, it knows it cannot just mass collect metadata with no warrants whatsoever.)

Evidence: 

Reasoning:  The NSA assume by obtaining a court warrant, it meets the 4th Amendment requirement when there there is a ““probable cause”.  (the Constitution’s Fourth Amendment is inarguably set in stone in declaring that in the United States “no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause.” Thus, when the NSA is successful in getting such a warrant from the FISA court, both the agency and the court are implicitly asserting that such a warrant meets the constitution’s Fourth Amendment requirement that warrants are only issued when there is “probable cause.”)

Strengths: focus on the “set in stone” and “inarguable” and ” implicitly assert”

Limitations: The evidence derives from the 18th century and national intelligence had changed.” Probable cause” today means any possibility that can help the government catch terrorists can legitimizes a warrant. 9/11 and Nice tragedies prove the point.

________________________

In a small reading group, use the Argument Outline Tool to examine the following texts-

  • Text 4.1 Mike Rogers
  • Text 4.2 James Sensenbrenner
  • Text 4.3 -the interview with President Obama
  • Text 4.4-ACLU
  1. How does the author support his claim?
  2. How does the author argues against a claim?

Use the EBC Claim checklist to evaluate your text.

Hand in the group Argument Outline sheet.

Homework: Create an Argument Outline  for your argument essay.

______________________________________

Day 18

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate the argument presented in a text with an Argument Tool and EBC argument criteria checklist through small group discussions.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Do Now: Raise a question you still have about identifying a claim or counterclaim. Discuss the argument essay assignment. Pair share.

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Structure of an Argument Essay

Introduction:

  • Use one or two sentences to provide a context for the topic of surveillance.
  • Why is the issue of government surveillance important?
  • What do some people say about the government surveillance? ( the opposing view)
  • State your position.
  • State your argument on the issue ( your perspective on government surveillance with reasons)- your perspective should be based on your synthesis of various claims on the issue.

Body

Supporting claim paragraph#1: 

  • State your supporting claim #1. ( topic sentence)
  • State your evidence and reasoning.
  • Analyze the evidence you have provided.
  • Making a connection between your evidence and claim #1.
  • (optional- for those who wish to take a step further) Acknowledging the opposing claim to your claim #1 and argue against it with a brief evidence and reasoning.
  • “So What” statement: How does your first supporting paragraph contribute to your thesis ( overall argument in the Intro)

Supporting claim paragraph #2🙁 Repeat the same steps but with a new supporting claim, evidence and reasoning)

Counterclaim paragraph( Body Paragraph #3): 

  • State your counterclaim.
  • State the evidence and reasoning of your counterclaim.
  • Argue against the claim by  “acknowledging the validity of the counterclaim and then point outing the limitation in the argument”( Reasoning)
  • Provide new evidence to support your counter-argument.
  • Explain why the new evidence shows how the counterclaim is limited or inaccurate.
  • So What Statement: how does the analysis connect to your thesis ( overall argument in the Intro)?

Conclusion:

  • Restate your argument in different words.
  • Point out why the issue of surveillance is important.
  • Explain how the issues connects to a universal truth or a larger Constitutional issue.

Independent Practice

Use the teacher model sheet as an example to create a group Argument Tool sheet. Convene in each reading group and use the EBC criteria checklist to write comments about the author’s argument.

Hand in one complete Argument Tool and Checklist with Comments

In small groups of 3-4, use the argument outline tool to create an outline for your own argument essay. Alt least include two supporting claims and one counter claim.

Assessment: Hand in the outline.

Homework: Finish the outline and develop your claim( counterclockwise) into a full paragraph with reasoning and evidence. First draft due on 1/17 ( Tuesday).

_____________________________________

Day 19

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate the argument presented in a text with an Argument Tool and their own claims and counterclaims on the issue of surveillance using the EBC argument criteria checklist through small group discussions.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.6
    Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A
    Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • making ebc tool
  • EBC criteria checklist
  • EBC terms
  • written EBC model
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Delineating Arguments tool
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion Evaluation sheet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their preparation  for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied according to needs.

Agenda

  1. Share  the complete Argument Outline tool in the small reading group
  2. Collect individual Argument Outline tool. Be sure to add the text title on top of the sheet
  3. In the small reading group, develop claims and counterclaims for your argument essay on the issue of surveillance. Identify relevant evidence to support each claim; provide reasons
  4. Use EBC criteria checklist to evaluate your Argument Delineating Tool

Do now: Share the Argument Outline tool in the small reading group

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

  • Clarify terms of position, argument, claims, counter claims,
  • How to identify precise evidence ( no repetition)
  • establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

Students will complete the Argument Delineating Tool by

  • developing  their own position, argument, claims, counter claims
  • establishing the relationship among the claims
  • gathering relevant evidence

Student Independent Practice

Use the EBC criteria check list to evaluate their claims or counterclaims

Assessment: Collect the both worksheets

Homework: Write the 1st draft of the argument essay. Due 1/17/2017 Tuesday.

_____________________________

1/17 Day 20

Agenda

  1. Peer review 1st draft of the argument essay using argument rubric; final draft due on Wed. 1/18/2017.
  2. Use worksheet to generate questions for Socratic Seminar

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate a peer’s essay using the rubric in pairs.

Materials: Hands related to the preparation of the Socratic Seminar( rubric, questions stems, self and peer-evaluation sheets)

Do Now: In small groups, identify key words in each category of the rubric. Share

Mini Lesson:

Teacher model

Read your peer’s essay and circle parts of the descriptions in the rubric that reflect your peer’s writing.

Students exchange peer reviewed-essays back to the writer. Share verbally your feedback to the writer but use the rubric as your evidence.

Independent Practice

  1. In a reading group, discuss questions you will ask during the Socratic Seminar by using the ” Developing Opening, Core, and Closing Questions). Consider using the TBQs I have given you in the packet.
  2. Each reading group reveals Socratic Seminar Group
    Guidelines
    a. Listen –No one can speak while someone else is speaking.
    b.  Build-Speakers must try to build on what others say, not debate their views.
    c. Refer- to the Text Speakers must refer directly to the section of the text from which their ideas come rather than making general comments or observations.
  3. Pick a leader to lead the discussion

The Role of the Leader
• Know the text well before you begin.
• Have a series of questions about the text ready to help define the discussion and give it direction (see templates and guidelines for opening, core, and closing questions)
• Have NO predetermined agenda to get the RIGHT answer; instead, think of the seminar as a joint search.
• Be an active listener.
• Have respect for each participant.
• Help participants work cooperatively, not competitively.
• Involve reluctant participants while restraining more vocal members.
• Facilitate discussion among participants rather than with you, the
leader.
• Examine and query responses by participants, trying to draw out reasons and implications in the thinking.
• Help participants rephrase questions and answers for clarity if necessary.
• Encourage participants to USE THE TEXT to support their responses.
• Be patient enough to allow each participants’ understanding to evolve.

Exit Slip: Each reading group hands in the final set of questions as well as the name of the group leader.

Homework: Revise the argument essay and prepare for the Socratic Seminar by writing down your responses to each question.

___________________

1/18 Day 21 Socratic Seminar on ACLU and Letter to AG Holden, Interview of President Obama and Mike Rogers

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate a designated participant and themselves by using the Socratic Seminar rubric and peer-review sheets through conducting  a practice Socratic Seminar based on the assigned text.

Do Now( 5 minutes): Assign partner and organize the class into two inner-outer groups. Review the seminar rules and rubric. Get ready the questions and responses as well as the text each group will discuss during the Seminar.

-ACLU  & Letter to Holden ( the NSA programs have infringed the 4th Amendment)

-Obama and Rogers groups (the he NSA programs have not infringed the 4th Amendment instead they protect Americans’ lives)

Socratic Seminar

Round 1( 10 minutes): ACLU and Rogers groups are in the inner circles. Out circle students evaluate a partner.

Round 2 ( 10 minutes):  Letter to Holden and Obama groups are in the inner circles. Outer circle students evaluate a designated partner.

Reflection ( 10 minutes) : After round 2 is finished, students remain in their seat and reflect on  their own performance during the seminar  by using the Reflection sheet

Hand in the packet that includes-

  1. your Socratic Seminar  questions
  2. peer observation form
  3. ” Circled” comments in the Rubric that describe your partner’s participation in the seminar
  4. Reflection sheet
  5. Leave the final rubric blank for the teacher.

Homework: Go over the packet and make further preparation for the 2nd Socratic Seminar. Be sure to pay  attention to areas you need to improve.

______________________

1/19 Day 22 Socratic Seminar 

Objectives: Students will be able to evaluate a designated participant and themselves by using the Socratic Seminar rubric and peer-review sheet through conducting  a  Socratic Seminar based on an assigned text as part of the argument unit.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C
    Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D
    Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • Socratic Seminar Discussion packet

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their choice of reading and preparation for the discussion as well as individual learning  need, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the small group discussion.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied, according to needs.
  • Question stems are provided to help students raise questions at various learning vantage points.

Resource: Socratic Seminar packet

Concepts and norms about Socratic Seminar

  •  debate (persuasion, prepared rebuttals, clear sides)
  • discussion (inquiry, responses that grow from the thoughts of others, communal spirit).
  • seminars ask students to keep focusing back on the text
  • the process of gaining capacity for inquiring into text is more important than “getting it right” at any particular point
  • Generate as many open-ended questions as possible, aiming for questions whose value lies in their exploration, not their answer
  • held accountable for the norms they agree upon.
  • relying on other students to respectfully challenge their peers’ interpretations or offer alternative views.
  • student-centered inquiry to their success
  • Students assess their understanding of the text through writing

Do Now( 5 minutes):

  • Organize the class into two inner-outer groups.
  • Review the seminar rules and rubric.
  • Each participant get ready the questions and responses as well as the text each group will discuss during the Seminar.

Front of the classroom: Obama and Rogers groups (the he NSA programs have not infringed the 4th Amendment instead they protect Americans’ lives)

Back of the classroom-ACLU  & Letter to Holden ( the NSA programs have infringed the 4th Amendment)

Mini Lesson( 5 minutes): 

Today we’ll conduct a Socratic Seminar on the text each reading has been studying. It’s time for your to share your understanding of the text with your group members.

In addition to the content of text we’ll discuss and share, we will also make observations  to see how your classmates and yourself conduct during a collaborative discussion in the areas of

  • Speaking( to all participants, moving conversation forward, etc)
  • Listening (eye contact, nodding, taking notes)
  • Referring to the text( use the text by citing )
  • Asking questions ( asking for clarification when needed)
  • Building on each other’s ideas ( making connections to other speakers and considering all opinions)
  • Engaging in a disruptive side conversation”( avoid)

Today, you may select two ares as your focuses for improvement during the seminar.

Student Independent Practice

Socratic Seminar

Notes: While students area conducting the Socratic Seminar, the teacher will observe each student his/her participating and observing roles but focus on one strength and weakness in each area by using a teacher observation form.

Round 1( 10 minutes): “ACLU” and “Rogers” groups are in the inner circles. Outer circle students evaluate a partner from the inner circle by using the Observation Form.

Students in the Outer circle take an additional 2 minutes to evaluate their partner by circling the words or phrases that describe their partner’s performance.

Round 2 ( 10 minutes):  Switch the role

“Letter to Holden” and “Obama” groups are in the inner circles. Outer circle students evaluate a partner from the inner circle by using the Observation Form.

Students in the Outer circle take an additional 2 minutes to evaluate their partner by circling the words or phrases that describe their partner’s performance.

Reflection ( 10 minutes) : After Round 2 is finished, students remain in their seat and reflect on  their own performance during the seminar by using the Reflection sheet .

For assessment, hand in the packet that includes-

  1. your parepared  Socratic Seminar  questions
  2. peer Observation Form
  3. ” Circled” comments in the Rubric that describe your partner’s participation in the seminar
  4. Reflection sheet
  5. Leave the final rubric blank for the teacher.

Homework: Write a one page reflection on the Socratic Seminar and highlight one complex idea you have learned today from the group that build on each other’s ideas.

________________________

1/20 Day 23 Debate on Government Surveillance vs. 4th Amendment

Objectives: Students will be able to critique the U.S.’s surveillance programs through staging a Lincoln-Douglas format debate.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.5
    Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A
    Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C
    Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D
    Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

Materials:

  • material packet for the unit
  • claim rubric
  • forming claim tool
  • ebc criteria checklist
  • ebc terms
  • Text-centered discussion checklist
  • copy of rules of debate
  • debate rubric for grading their own and/or peers’ debate performances

Grouping rationale: Students will be grouped based on their choice of reading and preparation for the debate as well as individual learning  needs, style, talents and personality to maximize their productivity  during the debate.

Differentiation:

  • Students are provided with texts that are layered carefully in complexity to meet various students’ reading needs and help them improve;
  • Guided questions are tiered  according to Bloom’s taxonomy so each student can participate in the group discussion or respond to the questions based on his/her individual needs;
  • Students are grouped based  on the sophisticated level  of texts and varied, according to needs.
  • Question stems are provided to help students raise questions at various learning vantage points.
  • Texts are provided with summaries and guided questions to help with students’ understanding

( 5 minutes) Do Now: In this “Barometer” activity, students will literally show where they stand on the issue of government surveillance vs. issues of privacy before they start the debate on a chosen position represented by the author they have studied.

You will listen to a set of statements and show whether you agree or disagree by moving to the designated sign( agree- to the locker side; disagree to the window side)

  1. I feel comfortable the government using surveillance cameras in every public space to watch everyone.
  2. I feel comfortable with the police using face scanning technology to spot terrorists and to know who is  attending crowded events like marathon, concert or parade.
  3. I feel comfortable with the police using GPS tracking activities of terrorists, criminals and others suspected of wrong doing.
  4. I feel comfortable with the notion that I’m sacrificing some privacy to gain safety.

Students return to the groups.

Mini lesson: ( 10 minutes)

Part I: Students become familiar with the Lincoln -Douglous debate format.

  1. Affirmative position debater presents constructive debate points. (5 minutes)
  2. Negative position debater cross-examines affirmative points. (3 minutes)
  3. Negative position presents constructive debate points. (5 minutes)
  4. Affirmative position cross-examines negative points. (3 minutes)
  5. Affirmative position offers first rebuttal (4 minutes)
  6. Negative position offers first rebuttal (4 minutes)
  7. Affirmative position offers second rebuttal (3 minutes)

Debate Teams:

  • Arrange the class into groups of six( 3 from each reading group) . Each group will represent one side — the affirmative or negative — of a debatable question or statement.
  • In order to involve all six individuals, designate each member of the team a specific responsibility or role based on the Lincoln-Douglas debate format-
  • Moderator — calls the debate to order, poses the debatable point/question, and introduces the debaters and their roles.
  • Lead Debater/Constructor — presents the main points/arguments for his or her team’s stand on the topic of the debate.
  • Questioner/Cross-Examiner — poses questions about the opposing team’s arguments to its Question Responder.
  • Question Responder — takes over the role of the Lead Debater/Constructor as he or she responds to questions posed by the opposing team’s Questioner/Cross-Examiner.
  • Rebutter — responds on behalf of his or her team to as many of the questions raised in the cross-examination as possible.
  • Summarizer — closes the debate by summarizing the main points of his or her team’s arguments, especially attempts by the opposition to shoot holes in their arguments.

Note: In the standard Lincoln-Douglas debate format, the negative position is given a lengthy rebuttal time in which to refute the affirmative rebuttal and make a final summary argument for the position. Then the affirmative position has a brief opportunity to rebut the rebuttal (offer a closing argument, if you will) — and the debate is over. In this format, adapted for the classroom, both teams offer a closing summary/argument after the rebuttals.

Debate ( 25 minutes)

Debate Topic: Has the U.S. government’s surveillance program violated American citizens’ right to privacy?

Teams:

  • Affirmative position: (3 members from each of the reading teams of Obama and Rogers)
  • Negative Position: (3 members from each of the reading teams of Letter to Holden and ACLU)

Debate Seating Arrangement: 

Affirmative team by the locker/ Negative by the Window

Three non-debtors from each reading sit behind their team debate members are given two or three cards on which are printed the words “Comment or Question.” They can use the card to write out information that they want to share with their team debators

Teach facilitate the debate by following the Lincoln Douglass debate format.

Non-participating team members use Debate rubric to evaluate each team.

DEBATE GRADING RUBRIC

On the right side of the rubric, please write the number representing what you think was the performance level of the debate team in question for each criterion below.  Then calculate the average for each team.

 

Levels of Performance for AFFIRMATIVE Team

Criteria 4 3 2 1 Grade:
1. Organization & Clarity:

Main arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way.

Completely clear and orderly presentation Mostly clear and orderly in all parts Clear in some parts but not overall Unclear and disorganized throughout  
2. Use of Argument:

Reasons are given to support the resolution

Very strong and persuasive arguments given throughout Many good arguments given, with only minor problems Some decent arguments, but some significant problems Few or no real arguments given, or all arguments given had significant problems  
3. Use of cross-examination and rebuttal:

Identification of weakness in Negative team’s arguments and ability to defend itself against attack.

Excellent cross-exam and defense against Negative team’s objections Good cross-exam and rebuttals, with only minor slip-ups Decent cross-exam and/or rebuttals, but with some significant problems Poor cross-exam or rebuttals, failure to point out problems in Negative team’s position or failure to defend itself against attack.  
4. Presentation Style:

Tone of voice, clarity of expression, precision of arguments all contribute to keeping audience’s attention and persuading them of the team’s case.

All style features were used convincingly Most style features were used convincingly Few style features were used convincingly Very few style features were used, none of them convincingly  
          TOTAL SCORE:

_____

 

 

Levels of Performance for NEGATIVE Team

Criteria 4 3 2 1 Grade:
1. Organization & Clarity:

Main arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way.

Completely clear and orderly presentation Mostly clear and orderly in all parts Clear in some parts but not overall Unclear and disorganized throughout  
2. Use of Argument:

Reasons are given against the resolution

Very strong and persuasive arguments given throughout Many good arguments given, with only minor problems Some decent arguments, but some significant problems Few or no real arguments given, or all arguments given had significant problems  
3. Use of cross-examination and rebuttal:

Identification of weakness in Affirmative team’s arguments and ability to defend itself against attack.

Excellent cross-exam and defense against Affirmative team’s objections Good cross-exam and rebuttal, with only minor slip-ups Decent cross-exam and/or rebuttal, but with some significant problems Poor cross-exam or rebuttal, failure to point out problems in Affirmative team’s position or failure to defend itself against attack.  
4. Presentation Style:

Tone of voice, clarity of expression, precision of arguments all contribute to keeping audience’s attention and persuading them of the team’s case.

All style features were used convincingly Most style features were used convincingly Few style features were used convincingly Very few style features were used, none of them convincingly  
          TOTAL SCORE:

_______

Upon exit: Students hand in the scored rubric sheets.

Homework:Write a one-page reflection  on the debate-what worked or didn’t work; what you learned from the debate; in what ways debate provoke more critical thinking  about issues.

 

 

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