Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh, a Heroic Journey and Adventure, the prequel to the Bible

Essential Questions:

  • How does an epic poem differ from other kinds of poetry telling?
  • What is a polytheistic society? Monotheistic society?
  • How does the epic reflect the pattern of heroic journey that Joseph Campbell has described in The Power of Myth?
  • How does the myth reflect the themes of coming of age, circles of life, harmony with nature as well as sacrifice and atonement?
  • How does the Gilgamesh story parallel with the Flood story in the Bible?
  • How do we define a hero?

 Texts:

  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Genesis chapters 6-9

Materials:

  • Gilgamesh handout
  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Genesis chapters 6-9

Resources:

  1. Gilgamesh.pdf
  2. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/epic-of-gilgamesh/id452027202?mt=2 ( Audio Clips)
  3. Introduction to Gigllamesh
  4. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/teachingheritage/lessons/lp2/learning3.html
  5. http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/story-epic-proportions-what-makes-poem-epic#sect-activities
  6. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2007/2/07.02.01.x.html
  7. Steven Mitchell’s Gilgamesh Audio Sample
  8. Steven Mitchell’s Gilgamesh : Prologue and Book 1
  9. Notes on the Epic
  10. Criticism on Gilgamesh by Benjamin Foster
  11. Introduction to Gilgamesh by John Harris

Concepts

  • Epic
  • Epic hero, epic cycle
  • Hero’s journey
  • Polytheistic society vs monotheistic society

 Objectives: Students will

  • Read , write, speak and listen to construct meaning of the epic.
  • Respond thoughtfully to writing prompts
  • Write before, during and after reading including journaling, answering questions, creating their own heroic myth
  • Understand the values of the most ancient written text the Epic of Gilgamesh and its connection to the Bible.
  • Make connections with modern world notion and importance of myth-its cultural value
  • Use the thematic patterns identified and expounded by Joseph Campbell in his Power of Myth, which exist in myth all around the world, to read and analyze the text
  • Do a parallel study between Gilgamesh and the flood story in the Bible
  • Reflect on and identify evidence for themes such as roles of women, the use and abuse of power, friendship, and the importance of myth in a society or culture.
  • Practice critical reading, informal and formal writing, critical thinking, speaking and listening as well as research as related to the text.

Assessment

  1. Formative assessments include double entry journals, responses to questions, passage analysis,
  2. Summative assessment: a modern hero’s epic journey myth, argument essay on the concept of hero or heroism, a literary analysis of an epic hero or theme analysis based on Campbell’s discussion of the power of myth.

Lesson 1 : epic hero, epic cycle, and the power of myth

Session 1 : Writing Class

Objectives: Students will become familiar with essential concepts of the unit such as epic, epic hero, epic cycle and the power of myth

Aim: How do we define, epic, epic hero, epic cycle? What is the power of myth according to Campbell?

Agenda

Do Now: In your term, define hero. Based on your understanding of Campbell’s hero’s journey, what is an epic cycle?

Mini Lesson ( Teaching points)

A. The epic poem is a long, narrative poem detailing the adventure or journey of an epic hero. Early epics are the result of oral tradition and have eventually been written down after many years. The author’s of the first epics are unknown because of the oral tradition. As time progressed, what is known as a secondary epic style developed and authors went to great lengths to write epics in the style of the early, or primary, epic poems.

The general characteristics of the epic poem are that initially epics were intended to be sung or recited, much like music today. The poems are often generated by times of struggle and adventure. For example, the Trojan War served as inspiration for the writing of Homer’s epics.

The epic poem has a clear set-up and design. The poem begins with an invocation – this invocation calls on a muse or god to inspire divine intervention while telling the tale. In the invocation, the subject and the epic question are introduced.

The epic’s language is literary and elevated. The language is used by all in the poem, from king to servant (even though epics rarely detail lives or actions of the servants).

Epic conventions include: the invocation, the epic question, the epic or Homeric simile, the epithet, the confrontation between two adversaries, the element of “in medias res”, and a battle or combat. “In media res” translates to “in the midst of action”. Essentially, the poem begins in the middle or during the action. The audience learns background information and details as the epic progresses. The simile is much like the literary simile using “like” or “as”; however, the epic simile is full of description and helps to move the action along and to build suspense.

B. Epic Hero-

The epic hero is larger than life, even though he possesses normal human characteristics. His personality and abilities, however, are more superior than those of everyday man.

The epic hero is not unlike the tragic hero in that he is born into greatness or into leadership. However, the epic hero has some characteristics that clearly distinguish him from the others. The legendary hero is “often of divine descent who is endowed with great strength or ability”. Gilgamesh shares these traits with other early epic heroes. The epic hero is in a different class of men based on his “skill, strength, and courage” .It is also no mistake that the hero is referred to as “he” because epic heroes are the central male character in the epic itself. (“Hero” Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature. Merriam Webster’s, Inc. 1995 NA. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale.).

The epic hero’s main focus is dangerous activity, essentially a war or battle over an evil force. The epic hero is someone we want fighting on our side as he is cunning, resourceful, instinctive, and skilled. He works well under pressure; he is the leader those around him need. These skills, although possessed by us all, are magnified and shown to be glorious as the hero needs then to lead and save the day

Again, like the tragic hero, our epic hero is not without fault. Often the epic hero has excessive pride (or “hubris”) and is not afraid to sing his own praises. Although respected, the hero is not always someone likeable. An interesting dichotomy to analyze with the students: is it better to be a well-liked leader or a well-respected leader? Are both aspects possible? Blinded by his own praises, the hero seeks to enhance his own reputation and may take on foolish, dangerous battles in an effort to continue to add to his list of achievements. These actions not only put him in danger but also risk the lives of those around him. This, however, makes his victory even more glorious and his people, even more grateful. (Landow, George. “Notes on Heroic Poetry.” http://www.victorianweb.org/genre/epic2.html. ).

Bryan M. Davis in his article on the site The Archetypal Hero in Literature, Religion, Movies, and Popular Culture ( http://titan.sfasu.edu/~beenet/resources/heromain.html) further maps out characteristics of the archetypal or epic hero. He states that the following are common characteristics epic heroes possess. The characteristics are:

1 Unusual circumstances of birth; sometimes in danger or born into royalty

2 An event, sometimes traumatic, leads to adventure or quest

3 Hero has supernatural help

4 The Hero must prove himself many times while on adventure

5 When the hero dies, he is rewarded spiritually

These characteristics are not unlike modern heroes in movies and in popular culture. Having these characteristics allows us to read literature and look for these elements to determine whether or not a character or “hero” fits into the mold of the epic hero.

C. The journey is the key element of the epic and the epic cycle. The epic cycle, as outlined by Jennifer Foley in the online lesson plan, Story of Epic Proportions: What makes a Poem an Epic? (http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=587)

identifies key elements of the cycle. The elements are:

1 the hero must possess supernatural abilities or powers. These can often be magnified qualities we all possess (for example, strength we all possess but the hero’s is superhuman).

2 the hero is charged with a quest that will test his abilities. This will test his worthiness to be a leader.

3 Then is the presence of helpers and companions as well as mythical animals or creatures during his journey.

4 The travels of the hero will take him to a supernatural world that ordinary humans are barred.

5 The cycle reaches a low point when we think the hero has been defeated but in the end, the hero resurrects himself and regains his rightful place.

In the book, How to Read Literature like a Professor, Thomas Foster gives five elements of the journey that readers can analyze. The five elements are

1 the quester himself,

2 a place to go,

3 a stated reason to go there,

4 challenges or trials en route during the journey,

5 the real reason a quester goes on the journey

Many questers set out to kill a beast or do something heroic to continue their reign as king or as someone of high esteem. However, after the journey is over, there is a message or lesson the quester must learn. This absolutely becomes the real reason the quester must take the journey and becomes something universal the students can learn from. (Foster, Thomas How to Read Literature Like A Professor. New York: HarperCollins, 2003)

 Student Practice or Discussion

Present your reading and understanding of the assigned episode from the TV series of The Power of Myth ( Moyers and Campbell)

Homework: Study for a quiz on the concepts related to epic.

 Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will understand the connections between ancient myths and modern world by identifying relevant information from an audio clip: Introduction to Gilgamesh by Harris

Aim: Why do we still read Gilgamesh?

Agenda

Do Now: Share our research about Gilgamesh and write the notes on a poster board.

Mini Lesson: Cultural connection between myth and modern world

Listen to an audio clip: An Introduction to Gilgamesh

Take notes while listening. We’ll use the notes for our discussions.

In small groups of 4,

  • share notes
  • Discuss and respond in writing:  what’s the cultural connection between myth and modern world? Cite specific evidence to support your answer.

In the whole class setting-

  • Share the most important ideas you learned from the clip.
  • According to John Harris, why do we still read Gilgamesh? What is its historical and cultural significance?

Wrap up: Why do we read Gilgamesh? What do you expect to learn from the epic?

Homework: 1. Organize your notes on the introduction. 2. Read and annotate Prologue of Gilgamesh.

Lesson 2 : The Oldest Story in the World

Text: Steven Mitchell’s Introduction 

Five stages of Knowledge: Knowledge of humanity, Knowledge of another, Knowledge of self Knowledge, Knowledge of he self, transcendence of Knowledge beyond self

Lesson 2

Session 1 : Writing

Objectives: Students will learn how to cite evidence from texts.

Aim: What is the difference between paraphrase and summary? What is “mere” summary, and what is summary-as-evidence? What should be quoted, and when? What about offering no quotations at all?

Do Now: Quiz

Listen to  https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/epic-of-gilgamesh/id452027202?mt=2 ( Audio Clips) and share notes.

Mini Lesson:

Read about “Implicit and Explicit Documentation”. Take notes while reading and try to answer the aim questions.

Student Practice

Use the Implicit and Explicit Documentation strategies to write about the cultural significance of Gilgamesh according to John Harris.

End of the Lesson Assessment: so -What is the difference between paraphrase and summary? What is “mere” summary, and what is summary-as-evidence? What should be quoted, and when? What about offering no quotations at all?

Homework: Integrate summary, paraphrase and direct quotations in your response to the Introduction.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will use Notice and Focus technique to read closely of Prologue of Gilgamesh; they will also derive at a central idea about Gilgamesh and use evidence to support it.

Aim: What is the mail writing strategy can we identify in Prologue? How does it help develop a central idea about Gilgamesh?

Do Now: Share annotations about the prologue.

Text: The Prologue of Gilgamesh

PROLOGUEHe who saw everything in the broad-boned earth, and knew what was to be knownWho had experienced what there was, and had become familiar with all thingsHe, to whom wisdom clung like cloak, and who dwelt together with Existence in HarmonyHe knew the secret of things and laid them bare. And told of those times before the FloodIn his city, Uruk, he made the walls, which formed a rampart stretching onAnd the temple called Eanna, which was the house of An, the Sky GodAnd also of Inanna, Goddes of Love and BattleLook at it even now: where cornice runs on outer wall shining brilliant copper -see,There is no inner wall; it has no equal. Touch the threshold – ancient. Approach the palace called Eanna.There lives Inanna, Goddess of Love and Battle. No king since has accomplished such deeds.Climb that wall, go in Uruk, walk there, I say, walk there.See the foundation terrace, touch then the masonry – Is not this of burnt brick, And good? I say;The seven sages laid its foundation. One third is city; One third is orchards; One third is clay pits- Unbuilt-on land of the Inanna Temple search these three parts, find the copper table-boxOpen it. Open its secret fastening. Take out the lapis-lazuli tablet. Read aloud from it.Read how Gilgamesh fared many hardshipsSurpassing all kings, great in respect, a lord in his formHe is the hero, He is of Uruk, He, the butting bullHe leads the Way, He, the Foremost, He also marches at the rear, a helper to his brothersHe is the Great Net, protector of his men. He is the furious flood-wave,Who destroys even stone walls. The offspring of Lugulbanda, Gilgamesh is perfect in strengthThe son of the revered Cow, of the woman Rimat-Ninsun. Gilgamesh inspires perfect awe. He opened the mountain passes, he dug the well on the mountain’s flank.He crossed to the far shore, traversed the vast sea to the rising Sun. He explored the rim, sought life without death. By his strength he reached Ziusudra the FarawayHe who restored living things to their placesThose which the Flood had destroyedAmidst the teeming peoples,Who is there to compare with him in kingship?Who like Gilgamesh can say:‘I am king indeed?’His name was called GilgameshFrom the very day of his birth,He was two-thirds god, one third man,The Great Goddess Aruru designed him, planned his body, prepared his formA perfect body the gods gaveFor the creation of GilgameshShamash the Sun gave beautyAdad the Storm gave courageAnd so he surpassed all others.He was two-thirds god, one third man,The form of his body no one can matchEleven cubits high he is, nine spans his chestAs he turns to see the lands all around him.But he comes to the city of Uruk.Long was his journey, weary, worn down by his laboursHe inscribed upon a stone when he returnedThis story.

Mini Lesson:

What is the function of a prologue? How does it portray a complex image of a n epic hero? If we need to identify one main writing strategy that helps portray such a complex image, what will it be and why?

We’ll use the 1st four lines as an example for the whole group to discuss.

Student Practice

In small groups of 3 or 4,  continue with the close reading of the rest of the lines in Prologue and discuss how the epic has created a complex image of Gilgamesh, the epic hero.

End of the lesson assessment: Write a few sentences to describe the complex image of Gilgamesh portrayed in the prologue and how the purpose is accomplished  through specific literary elements and techniques.

Homework: 1. Complete the End of the lesson assessment. 2. Read and annotate Table 1.

Lesson 3

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will practice using various strategies to cite evidence to support a point.

Aim: How to cite evidence precisely?

Do Now: Reflect on what we learned yesterday about tips on citing evidence effectively.

Mini Lesson

1. Share our notes on “Introduction” to Gilgamesh. What is the significance of Gilgamesh? Cite evidence- summary, para phase and direct quotation.

Teacher provides criticism and feedback to the activity.

2. Present The Power of Myth Poster.

Student Practice: Share your understanding of the Prologue – How is Gilgamesh portrayed as a complex character?

End of the Lesson Assessment: Write a summary statement as an evidence to support your description of Gilgamesh’s complex character .

Homework: Write a complete paragraph in which you will use three types of evidence to support your claim about Gilgamesh as a complex epic hero.

Session 2: Reading

Objectives: Students will write a critical summary of Tablet 1 of Gilgamesh.

Aim: What else do we know about Gilgamesh? How is his character developed further? How does that fit into the conventions or epic hero descriptions?

Do Now: Share your annotations about Tablet 1. Discuss within a small group of 3 or 4: How has he heroic journey started? Are there any elements you have noticed Campbell Harris described in their writing?

Mini Lesson: Epic Pattern

  1. repetition
  2. elevated language
  3. fantastical element
  4. slaying a monster

Practice:

  1. What other myth or epic elements have you noticed in Tablet 1?
  2. What is the central idea of the tablet?
  3. How does the story symbolize a certain stage in human development?

End of the Lesson Assessment: Describe one major writing strategy used in the narration from this Tablet and discuss how it helps portray the meaning.

Homework: Write a complete paragraph to “Describe one major writing strategy used in the narration from this Tablet and discuss how it helps portray the meaning.”.

Lesson 4

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will write a critical summary of Tablet 1 of Gilgamesh.

Aim: What is the main idea of tablet 1? What evidence do you  have to prove your point?

Do Now: Share your written response about how in Gilgamesh is portrayed as a complex epic hero in Prologue.( through a specific writing strategy).

Mini Lesson

Identifying Internal Voice

When reading the epic, the narartive may not be written from one perspertive, instead, you will hear multiple voices. Use the voice to direct your reading and the plot development.

For example,  in the 1st two lines, what voice do you hear? In lines 3–8, who is telling the story? In lines 9-16, who is speaking?

We’ll practice to identify the voiced from the rest of the tablet 1 on page s2-3 as a whole group.

Your Turn to Practice:

Group 1 & 2: page 4

Group 3 & 4: page 5

Group 5: page 6

End of the Lesson Assessment: Write a critical suymmary in which you state the main idea of the tablet and support and illustrate it with textual details.

Homewok: 1. Write a full page of the critical summary of Tablet 1. 2. Explain how this tablet connects to the larger themes of the Gilgamesh epic as described in Prologue. Describe one the themes you have identified from the prologue and use specific details to show how they connect to the theme.

Session 2 : Reading

Objectives: Students will identify some key literary elements or techniques from Tabket 1 of Gilgamesh and discuss how they help develop a central idea. Students will also identify details that connect to other epics or stories they know.

Aim: How does the story in Tablet 1 illustrate some of Campbell’s ideas about myths?

Do Now: Describe one detail that connects to your prior knowledge.

Resources:

Mini Lesson:

  1. How does this tablet connect to the Adam and Eve Biblical story?
  2. How does  Enkidu’s uniting with the woman humanize him?
  3. Five stages of Knowledge: Knowledge of humanity, Knowledge of another, Knowledge of self Knowledge, Knowledge of the self, transcendence of Knowledge beyond self
  4. Identify Epistrophe (also called antistrophe) that forms the counterpart to anaphora,

As a class, we’ll practice to identify literary devices from the passage on pages 2& 3. We’ll also point out how the device helps enhance a certain meaning.

Your Turn to Practice

Identify literary devices from the passage on pages 4  to 6. Point out how the device helps enhance a certain meaning.

End of the Lesson Assessment: Write a paragraph discussing how repetition or anaphora is used to emphasize a certain meaning in the passage.

Homework: Write a well-developed paragraph in which you discuss how repetition or anaphora is used to emphasize a certain meaning in the passage. Read and annotate Tablet 2.

Lesson 5 

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will write a critical summary of Tablet 2 and discuss how this tablet connects to the theme as described in Prologue.

Aim: How is Enkidu’s character developed in this Ssection of the tale as inscribed in tablet II?

Do now: Share the critical summary of Tablet 1 and  explain how this tablet connects to the larger themes of the Gilgamesh epic as described in Prologue. Describe one of the themes you have identified from the prologue and use specific details to show how they connect to the theme.

Mini Lesson

Writing a critical  summary-

  1. What’s the main idea ( point ) of the 2nd tablet?
  2. How is the idea developed?
  3. What specific evidence can we use to support the main idea?
  4. How is Gilgamesh portrayed in this part of the epic?

Your Turn to Practice:

Write the critical summary based on the guidelines provided.

Homework: Write a well-supported ad illustrated summary of narration in Tablet 2 with emphasis on verbs that are used to define and describe Enkidu and Gilgamesh. Use paraphrase in your critical summary as well as direct quotations ( not an entire line but key words and phrases). Read and annotate Tablet 4.

Session 2  Reading

Objectives: Students will read Tablet III of Gilgamesh and analyze how Enkidu and Gilgamesh are portrayed respectively.  They will use text evidence to support their understanding of each character.

Aim: How are Enkidu and Gilgamesh portrayed?

Do Now: How to portray a character?

Mini Lesson: 

A character can be portrayed directly by

  • narrator’s description of the character’s physical and personality traits.
  • the character’s direct speech or thoughts

A character can be portrayed indirectly by-

  • other character’s comments/remarks about him
  • the character’s action/reaction
  • relationship between characters
  • narrator’s comments

Your Turn to Practice

In small groups of 3-4,  we  will read Tablet III and use the guidelines to analyse Enkidu and Gilgamesh as portrayed in the section you will read.

Be sure to highlight key words or phrases.

End of the Lesson Assessment: Based on your reading, describe how Enkidu and Gilgamesh are portrayed respectively.

Homework: Finish reading Tablet 3 of Gilgamesh and write a character analysis on Enkidu or Gilgamesh through one of the writing strategies.

Lesson 6

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will list major events in Tablet 3 and use them to generate a central idea of the passage.

Aim: How does the passage in Tablet III reveal the complexity in an epic hero?

Do Now: Share your homework assigment on :

Write a well-supported ad illustrated summary of narration in Tablet 2 with emphasis on verbs that are used to define and describe Enkidu and Gilgamesh. Use paraphrase in your critical summary as well as direct quotations ( not an entire line but key words and phrases).

Mini Lesson

How to use  details of events to help generate a central idea of a passage?

What is an epic hero? hero’s journey  as discussed in our previous lessons?

Use of verbs-

Make a list of major events as described in Tablet III with a special emphasis on verbs, for example,

  • People of Uruk fear that Gilgamesh will be harmed and warn him of the immiment danger.
  • Gilgamesh insists he make an enduring name for himself through the adventure.
  • Enkidu assures Gilgamesh of his protection and safegaurd with his knowledge of the Cedar Forest and unknown territory.

YourTurn to Practice-

  1. Use the different vices to guide your reading
  2. Use a key verb to describe each subject ( character or narrator)
  3. Use a key verb in each sentence describing the major events described in Tablet III.

End the Lesson Assessment: Through the use of verbs, what imagery d you see?

Homework: Combine sentences together to  form a well-developed paragraph with a controlling idea (Tablet three)  and list of evidence that contains strong verbs. Be sure the paragraph points out how it connects to the overal theme of the epic.

 Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will describe and analyze Gilgamesh and Enkidu’s battle against Humbaba.

Aim: How does the battle against Humbaba reveal the nature of evil and omniscient benevalence of Gods and heroic traits?

Do Now: Peer review the character analysis on Enkidu or Gilgamesh through one of the writing strategies as used in Tablet III.

Mini Lesson

Retell the story by combining lines into complex sentences. Use strong verbs and transistional words to connect sentences.

Let’s find the passage that describes the battle against Humbaba. We’ll write the beginning of the story.

Your turn to practice

Continue reading the tablet V in a small group and jhighlight the details you want to include in the story about the battle agains the Humbaba.

End of the lesson assessment: What could be an effective way to tell a tale?

Homework: Include setting, main characters and motif, conflict and the climax in your story telling.(Tablet V).

Lesson 7

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will retell the story of the battle against Humbaba as described in Tablet 5 of Gilgamesh.

Aim: How to use various sentence structures in reconstructing the Humbaba tale?

Do Now: Share the following assigment-

Combine sentences together to  form a well-developed paragraph with a controlling idea (Tablet three)  and list of evidence that contains strong verbs. Be sure the paragraph points out how it connects to the overal theme of the epic.

Be sure to point our complex sentences used in the paragraph.

Mini Lesson:

1. Syntax

In addtion to using specific verbs in writing, we also need to use various sentence structures ( syntax). Identify sentence types.

About run-on and comma splice sentences

2. Elements of a story

  • setting
  • exposition
  • rising action
  • turning point
  • climax
  • denouement

3. Sequence of events

  • chronological manner
  • flashback

Your Turn to Practice

Start mapping out the sequence of major events with a partner based on your reading of Tablet 5.

End of the Lesson Assessment: What kind of structure I’ll use to retell the story of battle against Humbaba.

Homework: When working on the story of Humbaba, try to write your sentences in various structures. Include at least three compound sentences, three complex sentences and three compound-complex sentences.

Session  2: Reading

Objectives: Students will decide what kind of details to be included in the story of battle against Humbaba by determining their purpose of writing.

Aim: Who will be the true hero in the battle of Humbaba? What kind of message would you like to give your reader?

Do Now: Why is it important to determine the author’s purpose before adapting a story?

Mini Lesson:

Adapting a story-

  • Use an author’s purpose to help select details
  • How do you want your hero to be perceived? What traits in your hero so you want to emphasize or overlook?
  • What kind of role do you want the foil character to play?

Your Turn to Practice

Discuss in a small group of 3-4 how you want to adapt the story by- sharing-

  • what might be your purpose as an author
  • what kind of epic hero do you want to portray
  • what kind of role do you want Enkidu to play
  • overall tone of the story

Homework: Complete the 1st draft of the adaptation of the story: Battle against Humbaba. Due Friday. Read and annotate Tablet VI.

Lesson 8

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will use the guidelines to revise the story of battle agains Humbaba

Aim: How to make the story concise and interesting?

Do Now: Share the story map in pairs. In what ways does your partner’s story map differ from yours?

Mini Lesson

  • Share the beginning of the story( setting, exposition). What strengths does each beginning have?
  • Share the development of the story. Compare the rising action, turning point, climax, and falling action and denouement.
  • What do you think is the author’s purpose ?
  • What conclusion can you draw about Gilgamesh, Enkidu and Humbaba?

Check the Syntax and Verbs

Homework: Revise the story based on the peer review.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will write a critical summary of Tablet VI and make connections with Greek mythology.

Aim: How does the killing of Bull of Heaven anger the gods who decide to bring disasters to human world? What astronomical meaning does the bull of heaven have?

Do Now: Do a quick and dirty research to find out how the bull of heaven myth is not unique in the myth world.

Mini Lesson:

  1. Who is Tammuz? What is his significance in the epic?
  2. How does the story in this tablet reveal how the ancient Sumerians try to understand nature and season?
  3. Whom do you think is Innana equivalent to in Greek myth?

Your Turn to Think and Practice-

How does this tablet fit in one of the archetypes of myth as described in The Power of Myth by Campbell?

Homework: Finish the adatation of the battle against Humbaba story. Make sure to include a clear structure and purpose for the story. Use a variety of syntax. Read and annotate Tablet VII.

Lesson 8 (10/6)

Session 1 wrting

Work on completing your story. Hand it in by the end of the period ( story map, two drafts of the story with peer comments).

Session 2 Reading Tablet VII

Activities:

  1. Share your responses to the following:
      • Who is Tammuz? What is his significance in the epic?
      • How does the story in this tablet reveal how the ancient Sumerians try to understand nature and season?
      • Whom do you think is Innana equivalent to in Greek myth?
      • What is the significance e of 7?
  2. Write a critical summary of Tablet VI
  3. Do research on constellations , ancient astrology as well as the Bull of Heaven myth. and 7-related myth. Use Power Points to present your discovery. We’ll do the presentation on Tuesday.
  4. Look up the meaning of examples of allusions in Tablet VII  such as  SuMUGAN, Etana, etc.
  5. Discuss the following questions-
    • What is the central idea of the tablet?
    • What are some of the symbols of death, which we are still using in today’s modern society?
    • Why does Enkidu curse the priestess? What does his lamentation imply?
    • What evidence supports the point you have made?

Homework: Be ready to present your Power Point Research. Read and annotate TABLET 8.

Lesson 9

Session 1: Writing

Objectives: Students will use the writing rubric to grade their partner’s story and reflect on the creative process.

Aim: What was the process of composition like to you? What was challenging? Interesting? What have you learned?

Do Now: Review the rubric to grade your partner’s story.

Mini Lesson: Write a reflection on the writing process.

What was the process of composition like to you? What was challenging? Interesting? What have you learned? As a write, in what ways have you become a stronger writer because of this process?

Today’s Task: Presentation of your research on Tablet VII.

  1. Share your responses to the following:
      • Who is Tammuz? What is his significance in the epic?
      • How does the story in this tablet reveal how the ancient Sumerians try to understand nature and season?
      • Whom do you think is Innana equivalent to in Greek myth?
      • What is the significance e of 7?
  2. Write a critical summary of Tablet VI
  3. Do research on constellations , ancient astrology as well as the Bull of Heaven myth. and 7-related myth. Use Power Points to present your discovery. We’ll do the presentation on Tuesday.
  4. Look up the meaning of examples of allusions in Tablet VII  such as  SUMUGAN, Etana, etc.
  5. Discuss the following questions-
    • What is the central idea of the tablet?
    • What are some of the symbols of death, which we are still using in today’s modern society?
    • Why does Enkidu curse the priestess? What does his lamentation imply?
    • What evidence supports the point you have made?

Homework: Write a full typed page ( double-spaced) to reflect on the process of completing this writing assignment. The focus should be more on the process than the product itself.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will continue their presentations on ancient astrology and the Bull of Heaven myth.

Aim: Why do heroes often get punished by killing the bull of heaven? Why does Enkidu curse the priestess? What does his lamentation imply? What theme is revealed in tablet VII?

Resources:

Mini Lesson

How does Tablet VII address the theme of mortality?

What does Campbell say about how myth helps people understand mortality?

Your Turn to Practice-

  • What is the central idea of the tablet?
  • What are some of the symbols of death, which we are still using in today’s modern society?
  • What’s Tablet VIII about?

End of the Lesson Assessment: What is the central idea of Tablet VIII? Why?

Homework: Write a eulogy or elegy for Enkidu’s death in any form of your choice. What rituals can you identify from Tablet VIII.

Lesson 10

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will share their reflection of the story writing with a partner and draw a conclusion what helps one become a good writer. Students will compare their own analysis essay and argument essay with the sample ones and gain insights into what they need to do to improve their essays.

Aim: What skills are prerequsites to writing fluently? How can you improve your analytical and argumentative skills?

Do Now: In pairs, share our reflective writing. Use a poster paper to record everyone’s idea of how we can be competent writers. Pass the poster paper from pair to pair. No repretition. Initilas your ideas.

Mini Lesson

Text Analysis

Introduction

  1. Immedaitely state a central idea and writing strategy the author uses to devlope his/her idea.
  2. Explain why your central idea means or why it makes sense ( reasoning),
  3. Explain how the author developes this central idea ( at least two examples): lay out the criterai for futher anaylsis

Body ( 2nd Paragraph): idea development

  1. Give the first example of the writing strategy related to the central idea by using a critical summary of a specific paragraph or paraphrasing, and at times direct quotations of a key word or phrase.
  2. The example you provide needs to support the layers of meaning you have stated in the introduction; the examples are to illustrate part of the criteria for analysis.
  3. Make a connection with the example and your central idea. The analysis part!!
  4. Provide the 2nd example to show the development of the central idea.
  5. Make the connection between the 2nd example and the central idea
  6. So what: to connect back to your cneetral idea

Argument Essay

Introduction: See poster paper

Body paragraphs that support your argument:

  1. Topic sentence ( one of the sup point that illustrate the claim)
  2. Reasoning statement: why you make such a statement?
  3. Provide examples.
  4. Analyze examples
  5. Acknowledge a minor opposing evidence
  6. So what: connect back to the topic sentence with a more specific verb!

Counter argument Body paragraph –

  1. Topic sentence: Some may believe although…….. . state the opposing view.
  2. List their evidence ( 1-3)
  3. Refute each opposing evidence one by one by pointing our its contradictions, biased nature or limitations. Show proof why the opposing view is undermined by contradicting evidence.

Conclusion: Restate your claim in different words and draw an inference on the biggest advantage or disaadvantage if you put all your argument points together. The big so what statement, i.e. “rekindle such national pride and patriotism”, ” …for a ntion to be reunited after being torn politically”.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will observe the burial and funeral rituals described in tablet VIII.

Aim: What are some of the artifacts you recognize as part of the funeral and burial rituals? How does Gilgamesh show that he is in mourning?

Do Now: Make a list of goods and precious objects that Gilgamesh has promised to give Enkidu for his burial. How does Gilgamesh show his grief and cope with it?

Mini Lesson: on astronomy

  1. Read some informationabout Sumerian astronomy
  2. Sumerian  Astronomy Tablet
  3. Interpretations of Sumerian icons
  4. PPT: History of Astronomy
  5. Astronomy in Civilization and contributing scientists.ppt

  6. Ancient Wisdom

In a small group , discuss- ( Tablet IX)

  1. WHy is “the first intimation of dawn ” repeated?
  2. How does Tablet IX in which Gilgamesh takes his cosmic journey to seek immortality provide ancient Sumerians’ knowledge about  astronomy?
  3. What is their measure of time and distance?
  4. How is Pythogorean tradition related to the astronomy? ( page 46)

End of the Lesson Assessment: How would you use a geometric shape to describe Gilgamesh’s journal after 12 double hours?

Homework: Illustrate Gilgamesh’s journey ( astronomical icons, what he sees, the five stars – wonderers, how much time as space or duration ets.) Illustrate the journey in any way you perceive it.

Lesson 11

Session 1: Writing

Review of Text analysis and Argument essays

Homework: Prepare for assigned astrology presentation on Tuesday ( Presi and Poster board)

Session 2: Reading

Write a critical summary for Tablet X and XI respectively. Be sure to include a clearely stated central idea and text evidence ( three types of documentation- quote, paraphrase and summary).

Lesson 12

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students present their research on Sumerian, Babylonian and Egyptian astrology.

Aim: How is each ancient culture’s belief in astrology similar to or different from each other?

Do NOW: Convene with your group members and get ready for the presentation.

Mini  Lesson

Review Presentation Rubric

Your Turn-

Presentation:

Each group shall have 8 minutes to present both Prezi and poster board information. Each group will be graded using the rubric of presentation.

Homework: Read and annotate  “A Man for all Seasons: an Historian’s Demur “by MARVIN O’CONNELL (http://catholiceducation.org/articles/politics/pg0078.html). How does this article address the issue of heroes?

Session 2 Reading

Objectives: Students will read the 1st article and use hte evidence to help them respond to the statement “Strong is the Soul, and wise, and beautiful: The seeds of godlike power are in us still: Gods are we, Bards, Saints, Heroes, if we will.” by Arnold.

Aim: What is Earl Babble’s view on the quotation by Mathew Arnold?

Do Now: Respond to the quotation by Matthew Arnold, “Strong is the Soul, and wise, and beautiful: The seeds of godlike power are in us still: Gods are we, Bards, Saints, Heroes, if we will.”

Mini Lesson:

  • Personal view vs the article’s view
  • Use our personal view to help us take a stand on an author’s view
  • What’s Babble’s view on who can be our heroes?

Your Turn to Practice

Read Text 1: “the nature of heroes” by Earl Babble and do the following (http://www1.chapman.edu/~babbie/YCMAD/Ch02.html)

  1. What’s the author’s view on heroes?
  2. What are his reasons?
  3. What evidence or examples does he use?
  4. which statements state his views clearly?
  5. what are the key words or concepts that must be quoted not paraphrased?
  6. Which statements need to be paraphrased to show your understanding of its meaning?

End of the Lesson Assessment

Use Babble’s view to respond to Mathew Arnold’s statement.

Homework: Write a paragraph with a specific topic sentence in which you’ll address Arnold’s quotation with Babble’s views followed by Babble’s reasons and evidence ( at least three).

Gilgamesh Unit Summative Assessment

 Directions: Closely read each of the 5 texts provided and write a source-based argument essay in which you take a position on a quotation by Matthew Arnold, “Strong is the Soul, and wise, and beautiful: The seeds of godlike power are in us still: Gods are we, Bards, Saints, Heroes, if we will.” Topic: Should we regard heroes as everyday people doing ordinary things or those whose character is “ larger than life” such as “ Man of All Seasons”  ? Your Task: Carefully read each of the 5 texts provided. Then , using the evidence from at least three of the texts, write a well-developed argument regarding the notion of what constitutes a true hero. Clearly establish your claim, distinguish your claim from alternate or opposing claims, and use specific, relevant, and sufficient evidence from at least three of the texts to develop your argument. Do not simply summarize each text.  Guidelines:

Be sure to:

  • Establish your claim regarding what constitutes a true hero.
  • Distingusih your claim from alternate or opposing claims
  • Use specific, relevant and sufficient evidence from at least three of the texts to develop your argument
  • Identify each source that you reference by text number.
  • Organize your ideas in a cohesive and coherent manner
  • Maintain a formal style of writing
  • Follow the conventions of standard written English

Texts:

 Lesson 13

Session 1  Writing

Agenda

We’ll continue with the presentation using the rubirc provided.

Take notes while listening to to the presentations. Be prepared to ask questions at the end.

Review homework:  Read and annotate Text 3  “A Man for all Seasons: an Historian’s Demur “by MARVIN O’CONNELL (http://catholiceducation.org/articles/politics/pg0078.html). How does this article address the issue of heroes? 

Respond to the following questions tonight.

  1. What’s the author’s view on heroes ( what constitue a hero? )
  2. What are his reasons?
  3. What evidence or examples does he use?
  4. which statements state his views clearly?
  5. what are the key words or concepts that must be quoted not paraphrased?
  6. Which statements need to be paraphrased to show your understanding of its meaning?
  7. Is there any opposing view? What is it and how is it argued in this text?

Homework:

  1. Respond to the questions above based on text 3
  2. Turn the responses to questions based on Text 1 by Babble into a full paragraph.
  3. Read Text 3 “what makes a hero” and respond to the same 7 questions.

By Thursday, you will become familiar with three texts and each author’s views on heroes as well as opposing views indicated or stated in each text. Make sure to point them out (cite the evidence used).

Lesson 14

Session 1 Writing

Objectives: Students will annotate each of the four texts for the argument essay on heroes; they will also take a position on the topic based on their reading of the 3 texts

Aim: What is the position you will take on “what constitutes a hero”? Why?

Do now: Review the quotation by Mathew Arnold.  How would Babble, Zimbardo and O’Connell respond to the quotation respectively and why?

Write a short paragraph to describe each author’s view and why.

Mini Lesson

How do we use guiding questions to gain deeper understanding of a text and cite the relevant information?

  1. What’s the author’s view on heroes ( what constitutes a hero? )
  2. What are his reasons?
  3. What evidence or examples does he use?
  4. which statements state his views clearly?
  5. what are the key words or concepts that must be quoted not paraphrased?
  6. Which statements need to be paraphrased to show your understanding of its meaning?
  7. Is there any opposing view? What is it and how is it argued in this text?

Let’s use Gilgamesh as an example.

  • Gilgamesh is portrayed as an epic hero. How and why?
  • Does Gilgamesh support Arnold’s version of a hero-from the beginning he demonstrates his potentials, but through challenges, obstacles and sacrifices, he gains his wisdom and becomes a hero? (“Strong is the Soul, and wise, and beautiful: The seeds of godlike power are in us still: Gods are we, Bards, Saints, Heroes, if we will.”)

Your Turn to Practice-

Compare the three authors’ views on heroes, which position will you take? Why? Specify the reasons.

End of the Unit Assessment: Write a claim statement.

Homework: Read and respond to the 4th text ” mythological patterns of the superhero”.

Session 2 Reading

Objectives; Students will select quotations and sentences to be paraphrased from three texts to be cited in their argument essay.

Aim: What specific evidence I will use to support my claim?

Do Now:

Complete or revise the claim statement ( including three sub claims).

Mini Lesson:

Turn each sub claim into a topic sentence statement based on the evidence you have gathered.

As a class, we’ll come up with one topic sentence as well it reasons and evidence.

Your Turn to practice

Work on your own sub claims.

End of the Class Assessment: Does my sub claim help prove my thesis ( claim) statement?

Homework: Getting your notes ready for tomorrow’s essay writing on demand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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