The Poet and His Craft

Day 1

Objectives: Students will be able to write a literary analysis  of the poem Whitman’s poem ” I hear American Singing” through a complete writing process and the synthesis of various sources.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.2.B
Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.

Agenda

  1. Do Now
  2. Read and discuss ” William Stafford: The Poet and His craft”
  3. Read and discuss the poem ” Fifteen”
  4. Analyze a student Model
  5. Write independently a literary analysis of Whitman’s poem ” I hear American Singing”

Do Now: What’s your understanding of literary analysis? Pair share.

Mini Lesson and Guided Practice

In reading groups-

  1. Read and discuss ” William Stafford: The Poet and His craft”

Based on the essay, what might you expect Stafford’s poetry to be like? Discuss with a partner and cite evidence from the essay.

2. Read and discuss the poem ” Fifteen” ( What words in the last stanza signifies a shift in the point of view? What does this speaker realize at this point?

HW#1: How is the poem “Fifteen” connected to the essay ,” William Stafford: The Poet and His craft”? Show evidence.

______________________

Day 2

Objectives: Students will be able to discern how the student uses the biography and the essay to inform her analysis of the poem and apply the same strategy for their own analysis of the poem.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Do now: Pair-share- How is the poem “Fifteen” connected to the essay ,” William Stafford: The Poet and His craft”? Show evidence.
Teaching Points:
How to read poetry closely?
  1. Look for pattern-repetition, figurative language, motif
  2. Identify binary of ideas ( opposing  and shift)
  3. Anomaly ( unusual usage of words and phrases)

Guided Practice 

Read the poem ” Fifteen” and look for the details mentioned above. How do these details help you gain a deeper meaning of the poem?

Independent Practice:

Activity 1: Analyze a student Model

How did Jennifer use the biography and the essay to inform her analysis of the poem? Cite evidence for your discussion.

Activity 2: You will write a literary analysis to explore how Whitman’s life experiences are reflected in his poem ” I hear America Singing” and his journal entry ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books”.

Step 1: Read source 1( page 90) and underline /circle information that may be useful when you write the essay.

Step 2: Read and discuss source 2(91-92): Why might Whitman have called his experiences nursing in the Civil War ” the most profound lesson” of his life? What do you think he learned?

Step 3: Read  and discuss source 3: What’s Whitman’s tone, or attitude, toward the man in the remarkable hat? Cite evidence for your response.( page 93-94)

HW#2 Complete steps 1-3.

___________________________

Day 3

Objectives: Students will be able to structure a literary analysis essay based on multiple sources by carefully examining the structure of a sample essay.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Do now: What’s your understanding of synthesizing of two sources?

Teaching Points:

Structure of a literary analysis based on two sources-

  1. Where do you introduce your thesis or central idea ?
  2. How do you develop each aspect of your thesis?
  3. How do we use topic sentence as a ” rope” to understanding your points?
  4. How to connect the two sources?

Guided Practice

Read student sample essay and identify the following-

  1. thesis statement ( central idea based on both sources )
  2. Context
  3. Information from text 1 ( craft)
  4. Connecting source 1 with the poem ” fifteen”.

Independent Practice

You will be writing a literary analysis that explores how Whitman’s life experiences are reflected in his poem ” I Hear America Singing” and his journal entry ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books.” As you read about Whitman’s life and work, underline /circle information that may be useful when you write the essay.

Share in your reading group-

Step 1: Read source 1( page 90) and underline /circle information that may be useful when you write the essay.

Step 2: Read and discuss source 2(91-92): Why might Whitman have called his experiences nursing int he Civil War ” the most profound lesson” of his life? What do you think he learned?

Step 3: Read  and discuss source 3: What’s Whitman’s tone, or attitude, toward the man in the remarkable hat? Cite evidence for your response.( page 93-94)

Synthesis activity: How does ” Letter from Paumanok” reflect Whitman’s life? What does the piece reveal about the author?

Homework#3: Read source 4 and Source 5 and answer the questions on pages 95 and 96.

___________________________________

Day 4

Objectives: Students will be able to analyze various sources about the poet Whitman and makes connections between his life experiences and work.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work

Do now: Based on source 1, how can a reader know about a writer through his/her work?

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

  1. Read and discuss source 2(91-92): Why might Whitman have called his experiences nursing int he Civil War ” the most profound lesson” of his life? What do you think he learned?
  2. Read  and discuss source 3: What’s Whitman’s tone, or attitude, toward the man in the remarkable hat? Cite evidence for your response.( page 93-94)

Independent Practice

Small group synthesis activity: Which lines of ” Letter to His Mother” connect in some way with lines from ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books”? Include specific lines in your thinking and discussion.

Source 5- According to Whitman, how is the recorded history of the war different from the real war? Cite evidence for your response.

 Individually,

  • respond to the questions on page 99.( will be collected )
  • Analyze the sources ( individually complete the blanks)

Homework#4: Develop your Essay  ( pages 102-103)

  • Determine the topic
  • Write  the claim or central idea
  • Choose a stricture and craft the key points

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Day 5

Objectives: Students will be able to explore how Whitman’s life experiences are reflected in his poem ” I Hear America Singing” and his journal entry ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books.”

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work
Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.
Material : Tone word handout
Do now: 
Source 3: Pair share-What’s Whitman’s tone, or attitude, toward the man in the remarkable hat? Cite evidence for your response.( page 93-94)
Mini Lesson with Guided Practice
  • Which lines of ” Letter to His Mother” connect in some way with lines from ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books”? Include specific lines in your thinking and discussion.
  • Source 5- According to Whitman, how is the recorded history of the war different from the real war? Cite evidence for your response.

Independent Practice

In a small group-Develop your Essay  ( pages 102-103)

  • Determine the topic
  • Write  the claim or central idea
  • Choose a stricture and craft the key points
 Homework #5 :  Draft your essay
__________________________________________________

Day 6  Structuring the Literary Analysis Essay

Objectives: Students will be able to develop their literary essay by analyzing the sources, writing a claim or central idea and choosing a specific structure to organize their ideas logically and effectively.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work
  • Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
  • Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.
Material : Tone word handout , sample essay and “developing your essay” worksheet
Do Now: In a small group, write and discuss your response on an assigned question on page 99.
Mini Lesson with Guided Practice
Step 1: Use a graphic organizer to select key point before making the comparison. ( page 100)
Share in the reading group.
Step 2: Infer a central idea – an assertion / claim about the topic and comments on its significance
Complete the work sheet individually ( page 101).
Share in the reading group.
Step 3: Independent Practice
  • Choose a structure and craft the key point
  • In your reading group, complete the worksheet on page 102. 
  • For those who have drafted your essay, move on to page 103 to complete the sheet.( individualized)
Homework#6: Draft your essay ( page 107).

__________________________________________________________

Day 7

Revise using the check list and rubric( page 107)

Objectives: Students will be able to revise the literary analysis draft by using the structure checklist and rubric.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work
  • Differentiation: Students select details from the scene  based on their individual reading experience and understanding of the text. They are also given various options to respond to the poem depending on their personal level of challenges or strengths. Students can raise their own questions to probe into the implied meaning of the poem.
  • Grouping Rationale: Students will be grouped based on personal choice with consideration of individual learning needs, styles, talents and personality to maximize their productivity. In each group, all participants are contributors; but several of them will also be a timer, recorder, facilitator, presenter, spelling/grammar checker.
 Do Now:

Your Task
You will be writing a literary analysis that explores how Whitman’s life experiences are reflected in his poem ” I Hear America Singing” and his journal entry ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books.” As you read about Whitman’s life and work, underline /circle information that may be useful when you write the essay.
Do now: Share your central idea with a partner in your reading group. What did you notice about it? Do you consider it a strong and clear? Why?
Mini Lesson with Guided Practice
  1. Develop your essay – Write the claim or central idea based on your observations of the connections between Whitman’s life experiences and his poem /journal.( page 101)
  2. How to develop a central idea?
  3. Citation: page 106 How to cite textual evidence?
  4. Structuring your essay

Introduction: Context and thesis statement ( central idea)

Body Paragraph 1: key point 1 of his life experience that influenced the setting of the author’s writings

Body Paragraph 2: key point 2 of his life experience that influenced the voice of the author’s writings

Body Paragraph 3: key point 3 of his life experience that influenced the point of view/perspective of the author’s writings

Conclusion

________________________________________

Day 7

Objectives: Students will be able to revise the literary analysis draft by using the structure checklist and rubric.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work

Your Task
You will be writing a literary analysis that explores how Whitman’s life experiences are reflected in his poem ” I Hear America Singing” and his journal entry ” The Real War Will Never Get in the Books.” As you read about Whitman’s life and work, underline /circle information that may be useful when you write the essay.

 

Do now: Share your central idea with a partner in your reading group. What did you notice about it? Do you consider it a strong and clear? Why?

Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Structure of a Textual Analysis Essay

How to approaching an essay topic (task)?

  1. Step 1: Understanding the task
  2. Step 2: Underlying the key words and phrases that help you understand the task
  3. Step 3: Turn the statement into a question
  4. Step 4: Answer the question
  5. Step 5: Describe what you’ll need to do to provide an effective answer to the question(s)
  6. Step 6: Identify the evidence that will help you generate a thesis statement

How to write an effective thesis statement?

  • Directly address the essay question
  • there is a shift ( tension) within the statement
  • state the literary devices used by the author

How to write an introduction?

  1. Provide one -sentence comment on the topic you are writing.
  2. Provide an appropriate context of the narrative
  3. State the thesis statement

 How to write a conclusion?

  • Restate the most important point you have been making throughout the essay but in different words.
  • Make a real life connection (how is the discussion relevant in real life?)

 Body Paragraph structure:

  • Topic Sentence-Claim
  • Context ( cite the sentences where you will “zoom’ in on specific words or phrase for your analysis
  • Point out he words and phrases that are connected to your claim
  • ( Analysis)Explain why the specific words and phrases represent the deeper meaning
  • Making connections aback to your thesis ( so what)

Textual Analysis Structure

Introduction: ( 3-4 sentences)

  1. State the central idea of the passage
  2. State the (one) strategy that the authors uses to illustrate the central idea
  3. Explain two steps of how the author DEVELOPS his central idea through the strategy by using the word “ first, the author….;then the author…

Body

Body Paragraph 1:

  1. Topic sentence ( first the author uses ___________( a strategy) to describe/portray…
  2. Context: quotations ( 2- 3 examples) – omit words you don’t need by using …
  3. Zoom in ( go back to the textual evidence you have cited) and point out specific words or phrases that show a pattern . Bring out the deeper meaning( what do the details say about your claim or author’s central idea)
  4. So what: making a connection back to your claim

Body Paragraph 2:

  1. Topic sentence ( then the author uses ___________( a strategy) to describe/portray…
  2. Context: quotations ( 2- 3 examples) – omit words you don’t need by using …
  3. Zoom in ( go back to the textual evidence you have cited) and point out specific words or phrases that show a pattern . Bring out the deeper meaning( what do the details say about your claim or author’s central idea)
  4. So what: making a connection back to your claim

Conclusion: Restate the central idea with different words; how does the central idea connect to a universal truth?

Tips: Two claims should be different- the 2nd claim should be based on the first claim

Here is an example-

Introduction: state the central idea and name the strategy.

  • A central theme is the narrator’s feelings of despair or helplessness as the realization takes hold that he is being a prisoner in a desolate castle.
  • The write uses the tone, or his voice, to help develop the central idea.

Development

Body Paragraph 1: 

  • Topic sentence: The author uses  tone to help develop the central idea of despair in the story by describing the setting.
  • Context: A brief sugary that helps the reader to understand the evidence- The author describes the character’s surroundings as dull, dreary, grey, stoney and overall very depressing. 
  • Evidence ( that is an example of the writing strategy): Words such as ” stone stairs”, ” narrow darkness of the courtyard” and ” the window…was tall and deep, stone-mullioned and though weather-worn” reinforce this gloomy setting
  • Analysis: how does the evidence help the author develop his central idea? –When the author does this, he immediately implement the idea of depression or sadness into the piece of literature. The author also uses word choice to his advantage. The author is able to use his tone to convey the idea of despair through words and phrases like ” desperate straits” (line 13), ” prisoner” (line 1), ” I was helpless” (line 5 and ” I am, I know, wither being deceived like a baby by my own fears or ..”.( line12).
  • Making a connection back to the central idea: The author is able to convey the idea of desperation and despair through these gloomy quotes and create a tone, which also helps develops the central idea.

Body Paragraph 2:

  • Topic sentence
  • Context
  • Evidence ( that is an example of the writing strategy)
  • Analysis: how does the evidence help the author develop his central idea?
  • Making a connection

Conclusion: Repeat the central idea and how it reveals a universal truth.

Independent Practice

Use the structure or rubric to guide or peer edit your essay.

The following rubric give you a better idea how your essay will be evaluated:

Paragraph Elements A (90+) B(80+) C(70+) D (65) F(65-)
Topic Sentence-Claim: one sentence ( complex), reader’s interpretation, debatable, strong verbs,  a brief reason Include all elements Include most elements Include some elements Include few elements none
Context: main idea of the excerpt, to provide background information, framing the discussion, related to the claim, Helping frame the discussion and relevant to the claim General but relevant General with no clear intention to connect with the claim Vague and irrelevant none
In-Text citation: paragraph or line number, citation in quotation marks Clear and appropriate Clear and some relevancy inconsistent vague none
Example-Introduce the sentence in which the example appears; Single out the word and discuss its meaning Appropriate and precise appropriate General vague none
Explanation:  What do the words appear to describe or mean? Appropriate and precise appropriate general vague none
Analysis: What deeper meaning does the word imply? Why? Insightful and appropriate( with 3+ sentences) Relevant( with 2+ sentences) General( with 1+ sentences) Vague ( 1 sentence) none
Making connections ( so what): Putting all the examples together, how do they contribute to the claim? How do they connect to the claim? Insightful and relevant with clear connection to the claim Relevant with clear connection to the claim General with some connection to the claim
 

Check for Understanding: Hand in your thesis statement ( central idea) with two separate claims ( topic sentences).

Homework#8: 2nd draft due tomorrow.

_____________________________

Day 8 : Peer review ( page 108)

Objectives: Students will be able to revise the literary analysis draft by using the structure checklist and rubric.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work

Do now: Read a sample student essay. hat did you notice that was successful or needed revision?
Mini Lesson with Guided Practice

Checklist to evaluate your thesis statement?

  • Directly address the essay question
  • there is a shift ( tension) within the statement
  • state the literary devices used by the author

 Evaluate your Introduction?

  1. Provide one -sentence comment on the topic you are writing.
  2. Provide an appropriate context of the narrative
  3. State the central idea.

 

Evaluate your conclusion-

  • Restate the most important point you have been making throughout the essay but in different words.
  • Make a real life connection (how is the discussion relevant in real life?)

 

Evaluate your body paragraphs-

  • Body Paragraph 1: key point 1 of his life experience that influenced the settingof the author’s writings
    1. Describea specific aspect of Whitman’s life experience;
    2. Inferwhat ideas or perspectives Whitman gains from the  experience ;
    3. Analyze how the attitude/perspective is reflected in his writing ( poem and /or journal);
    4. Evaluate how the examples from the journal or poem you have analyzed contribute (connect) to your central idea (So What).
  • Body Paragraph 2: key point 2 of his life experience that influenced the voiceof the author’s writings
    1. Describe a specific aspect of Whitman’s life experience;
    2. Inferwhat ideas or perspectives Whitman gains from the  experience ;
    3. Analyze how the attitude/perspective is reflected in his writing ( poem and /or journal);
    4. Evaluate how the examples from the journal or poem you have analyzed contribute (connect) to your central idea (So What).

 

  • Body Paragraph 3: key point 3 of his life experience that influenced the point of view/perspective of the author’s writings
    1. Describea specific aspect of Whitman’s life experience;
    2. Inferwhat ideas or perspectives Whitman gains from the  experience ;
    3. Analyze how the attitude/perspective is reflected in his writing ( poem and /or journal);
    4. Evaluate how the examples from the journal or poem you have analyzed contribute (connect) to your central idea (So What).

 

Assessment:  Students hand and in the literary analysis essay with the peer review feedback, rubric and the packet by the end of the period.

Homework: Write a page or two reflection on what you have learned from this unit of writing a literary analysis:

  • In what areas have you improved?
  • In what areas do you need to work harder to improve in the near future?
  • What are the top goals you are aiming to achieve for the next unit?
  • What have you learned about yourself as a learner through this unit?

 

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